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Psychology
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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research Assignment (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

select one psychological disorder, describe it, its causes, symptoms, and your personal opinion on the condition.

source..
Content:


Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Childhood is supposed to be one of the safest phases in human life-cycle; however, it is often riddled with health conditions including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) that threaten to distort an individual's entire future. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that that triggers attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity problems. This psychological condition plagues some 11 percent of American kids, an equivalent of 6.4 million, compared to 4 percent or 8 million adults (Mental Health Information, 2017). Boys are comparatively susceptible as they are three times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than their female counterparts (The ADD Resource Center, 2017). Defeating ADHD requires creation of awareness to promote early detection and treatment where possible.
Although predominantly a childhood mental condition, ADHD can transcend into adolescence and adulthood, presenting differently depending on the person. Ramifications of the condition especially in individuals who could not access proper medical attention include low self-esteem, poor academic and work performance, chronic under-achievement, relationship problems (Mayo Clinic, 2017). Beyond these symptoms, ADHD plays a crucial role in contributing to substance abuse, anxiety, and depression. Situational factors determine how the symptoms present and ultimately the subclasses of the psychological disorder.
ADHD can be classed into three primary subtypes: 1) predominately inattentive, 2) predominately hyperactive-impulsive, and 3) combined type (Mattingly et al., 2012). The category to which one falls depends on the combination of symptoms be or she experiences. Those identified as the predominately inattentive do not pay close attention to detail and are prone to careless mistakes in various activities including schoolwork. They also have short attention span and will get distracted when undertaking long and tedious tasks so they avoid them altogether. Additionally, these individuals are frequently forgetful and disorganized.
The second subtype, the predominately hyperactive-impulsive, present a different set of symptoms. Individuals fidget with their hands or feet or squirm while seated. Another sign is their restlessness and unlikeliness to remain seated in situations requiring them to do so. In addition, these people are hyper-talkative; this explains why such individuals experience huge difficulties engaging in activities quietly. They are also quite impatient - always on the go, uncomfortable remaining still, and rush through activities. In many cases, those falling in this class hyper-reactive and will just act without thinking; they will blurt out answers before listening to the whole question or engage in a task before preparing for them. In the event that a person presents symptoms that overlap both categories, he or she qualifies as a combined type.
Although little is known about the causes of ADHD, certain factors have been identified to make people more likely to develop the condition. Studies have established that consuming sugary food, playing video games watching TV, poor parenting, allergy, and indiscipline are not among the causes (Kim & Chang, 2011). A thrust of literature shows that heredity and genetics play culprit. Studies show that the people diagnosed with the disorder have a minimum of one close relative with the same condition (Johansson, 2016; Moruzzi, Rijsdijk, & Battaglia, 2014). However, the specific gene that causes the condition remains a future breakthrough. Also, certain environmental factors increase the chances of developing ADHD: premature bi

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