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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research Assignment (Essay Sample)
select one psychological disorder, describe it, its causes, symptoms, and your personal opinion on the condition.source..
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Childhood is supposed to be one of the safest phases in human life-cycle; however, it is often riddled with health conditions including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) that threaten to distort an individual’s entire future. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition that that triggers attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity problems. This psychological condition plagues some 11 percent of American kids, an equivalent of 6.4 million, compared to 4 percent or 8 million adults (Mental Health Information, 2017). Boys are comparatively susceptible as they are three times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than their female counterparts (The ADD Resource Center, 2017). Defeating ADHD requires creation of awareness to promote early detection and treatment where possible.
Although predominantly a childhood mental condition, ADHD can transcend into adolescence and adulthood, presenting differently depending on the person. Ramifications of the condition especially in individuals who could not access proper medical attention include low self-esteem, poor academic and work performance, chronic under-achievement, relationship problems (Mayo Clinic, 2017). Beyond these symptoms, ADHD plays a crucial role in contributing to substance abuse, anxiety, and depression. Situational factors determine how the symptoms present and ultimately the subclasses of the psychological disorder.
ADHD can be classed into three primary subtypes: 1) predominately inattentive, 2) predominately hyperactive-impulsive, and 3) combined type (Mattingly et al., 2012). The category to which one falls depends on the combination of symptoms be or she experiences. Those identified as the predominately inattentive do not pay close attention to detail and are prone to careless mistakes in various activities including schoolwork. They also have short attention span and will get distracted when undertaking long and tedious tasks so they avoid them altogether. Additionally, these individuals are frequently forgetful and disorganized.
The second subtype, the predominately hyperactive-impulsive, present a different set of symptoms. Individuals fidget with their hands or feet or squirm while seated. Another sign is their restlessness and unlikeliness to remain seated in situations requiring them to do so. In addition, these people are hyper-talkative; this explains why such individuals experience huge difficulties engaging in activities quietly. They are also quite impatient - always on the go, uncomfortable remaining still, and rush through activities. In many cases, those falling in this class hyper-reactive and will just act without thinking; they will blurt out answers before listening to the whole question or engage in a task before preparing for them. In the event that a person presents symptoms that overlap both categories, he or she qualifies as a combined type.
Although little is known about the causes of ADHD, certain factors have been identified to make people more likely to develop the condition. Studies have established that consuming sugary food, playing video games watching TV, poor parenting, allergy, and indiscipline are not among the causes (Kim & Chang, 2011). A thrust of literature shows that heredity and genetics play culprit. Studies show that the people diagnosed with the disorder have a minimum of one close relative with the same condition (Johansson, 2016; Moruzzi, Rijsdijk, & Battaglia, 2014). However, the specific gene that causes the condition remains a future breakthrough. Also, certain environmental factors increase the chances of developing ADHD: premature birth, low birth weight, exposure to pesticides and lead, as well as early head injury (Thapar, Cooper, Jefferies, & Stergiakouli, 2012). It is safe to conclude that some genetic and environmental factors cause ADHD.
Thus far, no definitive diagnosis has been developed for ADHD. However, the American Psychiatric Association developed a standard assessment for identifying behavioral patterns discussed above. Again, there is no cure for this disorder. Still, the American Psychiatric Association offers a possibility for treating, though only for children, using a combination of medication and behavioral therapy (Sharma, Mishra, & Mishra, 2015). The reality that ADHD is only treatable in children stresses the need to seek medical advice before the window closes, a situation that demands a shift in the discourse.
ADHD is psychological condition that has only been rising in predominance since 2003 (CDC, 2017). These trends indicate that while the efforts made thus far in countering the condition are plausible, they have not been intense enough to guarantee a lasting solution. It is difficult to alter genetic history of parents, but it is possible to determine whether a child has ADHD for early treatment, or to help those who have passed the window of treatment leave with the condition (Gillott, 2013). Elaborate education is necessary to increase awareness among parents and guardians so that they can detect behavioral abnormalities and seek professional advice early. It is better to have a healthcare professional check a child and be told that everything is okay than to realize that nothing can be done to treat the child. Besides, more research is needed to fill the dearth of knowledge existing in this subject. Both recommendations require collaborations to develop and implement appropriate policies and make healthcare more accessible.
ADHD is a psychological condition that does not recognize boundaries of age and gender. Still, it attacks more boys than girls and will follow the child through puberty into adulthood if not treated, shuttering dreams and relationships in the process. Genetic links and environmental factors increase the chances of developing the condition, but it is...
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