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Psychology
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Topic:

Why do birds mimic Psychology Essay Research Paper (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

This study seeks to review Literature to (1) establishes what mimicry is and how is it triggered? (2) Why do birds mimic; are activities such as migration, reproduction or wintering playing linked to mimicry in birds? (3) How doe birds behave while responding to other birds by territoriality and alarm calls? (4) Are traits such are predation and mating harmful to mimicking species of birds (5) what are the benefits of imitation as well as detection of imitation and deceit?

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Content:


Review of Literature on Birds’ Mimicry
Name
Institution
Author’s Note
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1.0 Abstract PAGEREF _Toc35235137 \h 42.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc35235138 \h 63.0 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc35235139 \h 73.1 Research questions PAGEREF _Toc35235140 \h 73.2 Search Strategy PAGEREF _Toc35235141 \h 74.0 Findings PAGEREF _Toc35235142 \h 84.1 Definition of Mimicry PAGEREF _Toc35235143 \h 84.2.0 Reasons why Birds Mimic PAGEREF _Toc35235144 \h 94.2.1 Reproduction PAGEREF _Toc35235145 \h 94.2.2 Migration PAGEREF _Toc35235146 \h 94.2.3 Wintering PAGEREF _Toc35235147 \h 104.3.0 Behaviors in Response to Other Birds PAGEREF _Toc35235148 \h 114.3.1 Territoriality PAGEREF _Toc35235149 \h 114.3.2 Alarm calls PAGEREF _Toc35235150 \h 124.4.0 Determining Whether Certain Traits Are Harmful To Any Species PAGEREF _Toc35235151 \h 124.4.1 Predation PAGEREF _Toc35235152 \h 124.4.2 Mating PAGEREF _Toc35235153 \h 134.5 Benefits of Imitation PAGEREF _Toc35235154 \h 134.6 Benefit (s) of detecting imitation and deceit PAGEREF _Toc35235155 \h 145.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc35235156 \h 146.0 References PAGEREF _Toc35235157 \h 167.0 Appendices PAGEREF _Toc35235158 \h 187.1 Appendix A: Relationship between Icterine species song and territoriality PAGEREF _Toc35235159 \h 187.2 Appendix B: Social Dominance PAGEREF _Toc35235160 \h 19
1.0 Abstract
A series of evolution has taken place in mimicry. Every researcher is keen on reviewing the literature on birds’ mimicry. Different definitions of mimicry have been put across; but the still there is a dilemma on establishing the best definition of mimicry. There reasons that supports birds’ mimicry phenomenon. For instance, birds mimic to reproduce, migration, and winter. During mimicry, birds portray traits such as predation and mating. This study reviews articles on birds’ mimicry to establish facts to respond to areas such as the definition of mimic, rationale behind mimicry in birds, behavioral responses and traits, species of birds harmed by behavioral traits such as predation and mating, benefits of imitation, as well as benefits of detecting imitation and deceit.
Keywords: Mimicry, birds, predation mating, alarm calls, territoriality
2.0 Introduction
The fact that some species of birds can vocally reproduce the sounds from other sources including human, is a remarkable and widely celebrated phenomenon in the animal kingdom. None the concern has been to establish the definition of mimicry, elements that trigger mimic, conditions under which birds mimic, how birds behave while respond to other birds, identifying traits harmful to any species of birds that mimic, and benefits of imitation as well detecting imitation or deceit (Goodale et al., 2014). Dalziel et al. (2015) state that explaining the reason as to why some species of birds reproduce sounds while many do not has been an extensive field of mere speculation since the field has little theoretical and empirical research.
It is surprising to encounter cases of vocal learning in birds through birdsong. An instigation done by Goodale et al. (2014) established that while birds can learn various vocalizations, they tend to learn specific kinds of vocalizations, called, conspecific vocalizations. More interestingly, variation exists in the strength of filters, with some bird species singing hetero-specific songs while other species do not. There are controversial benefits of vocal mimicry. According to Goodale et al. (2014), despite little evidence, vocal mimicry in birds has evolved to serve vital functions. Vocal mimicry plays different functions in different species of birds (Goodale et al., 2014). Dalziell & Welbergen (2016) posit that mimic reproduces cues of signals in various ecological contexts to avoid predation, attract mates or prey and facilitate parasitism, but, the main questions scholars keep on asking is, “how do they do it?”

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