Four Forces Shaping NORC Countries Research Assignment (Essay Sample)
Final Assignment: Geographies of Global Change
Total points = 30 pts; Total course value = 25%
DUE April 11th
There are two parts to this assignment. You must answer all questions.
You will be graded on your comprehension of the course material and your ability to develop a
coherent argument. Use complete sentences and grammatically correct English to answer all
questions. Be as clear and detailed as possible. Use headings if appropriate.
• Submit a Microsoft WORD document or PDF document to the D2L Dropbox at or before
11:59pm on April 11th. If you do not submit a WORD or PDF document, your
submission will NOT be graded.
• While I encourage you to discuss the questions and the course content, you must submit
your own work. PLAGIARISM will not be tolerated and will result in serious
repercussions (i.e. zero on the assignment and academic sanctions).
• When citing the book use APA: text text text (Smith: page #).
Part 1: Use the Force! (total: 20 pts)
Globalization & Growing Demand (total = 10 pts)
The Arctic is a dynamic and complex geographical place. According to Smith (2011:147), by
late 2007 “Arctic fever went viral. Headlines and pundits declared that a new colonial race for
the frontier…had begun.”
Considering Smith's point above (and others made in Chapter 6), how is the Arctic linked to
the concept of globalization? In your answer, and with reference to examples from Smith
and/or the lectures, also consider how growing demand for resources drives the politics of the
Arctic. In your own words and using evidence from the book, explain how the Arctic is
simultaneously a space of geopolitical destabilization (i.e. ‘pressures on nations') and a space
for global cooperation.
Part 2: Essay: The World in 2050 (total: 20 pts)
In the course text, Lawrence Smith (2011: 214) argues that “[e]verything is linked. Shrinking ice,
natural resource demand, and political power were all tugging on each other.”
Discuss the connections between the Four Forces (Demographics, Growing Demand, Climate
Change, and Globalization) and how they are affecting the NORCs. In your answer, consider
your own ‘thought experiment' and offer a view of the NORCs into the future (say, 2050): what
are the most pressing issues and why?
Use the Force
Globalization is a concept that involves the means in which developments in a specific region can quickly result to great consequences for the well-being and security of individuals who are quite far areas of the world (Bytheway & Metzler, 2017). Globalization refers to a set of technological, social, and economic forces that make the world interdependent and interconnected. It is evident that the world economy was highly interconnected before the financial crisis that occurred globally between 2008 and 2009. This section will discuss the concept of globalization and increasing demand for resources in relation to the Arctic.
The Arctic is influenced by globalization pressures, population concentration, migration, urbanization, and continued economic integration trends. The Arctic is highly placed among other regions in the world context due to the need of building capacity in the Arctic in order to fill the resource gaps existing at all levels. There are high economic expectations that because of altered accessibility to significant minerals, climate change, and increasing demand for resources from Northern region. There has been the rapid growth of global interest in Arctic economic growth and development (Łuszczuk, 2016). The changes in demand and supply for amenities and resources found in the Arctic are significant factors that have contributed to the global concerns in this region. On the cost aspects, it is perceived that the impacts of climate change will reduce ice cover in the Arctic and the broader and access costs of conducting business in five specific sectors that include tourism and fisheries, gas and oil extraction, shipping, and mineral resource extraction.
The global demand is increasing for the amenities and resources due to globalization. It is vital to focus on the emerging global trends that have resulted to increase in connectivity between the global level and arctic. The emerging trends include dependency ratio, population concentration, economic burden, the aspect of world being smaller as result of its integration, urbanization, inadequate resources, environment, infrastructure, health implications due to aging trend, and the more connected universe that results to global information networks and shopping.
The economic growth and development in the Arctic are facing various challenges in form of economic, technical, and natural obstacles. Strategies have been developed and implemented to attempt to overcome these obstacles in order to determine the Arctic future goals and its sustainability for global values and local economy. The economic globalization in the Arctic has resulted to new ideas, altered taste, values, lifestyle preferences, changes in decision-making, ideas, and changes in migration patterns, urbanization, and large consumer bases in various areas. This has been driven by the growing interest or awareness of arctic due to opportunities available in terms of resources (Łuszczuk, 2016). Smith notes that the numbers of individuals willing to be informed about artic, exploit or visit grow increasingly grow each year. Many people are migrating from rural to towns and cities in the Arctic. For example, people are migrating from remote sub-Arctic and Arctic where they abandon the small homes and villages to places such as Fort McMurray and Fairbanks (Smith, 2011). There is a need to build capacity in the Arctic because of its continued growth of linkages and connections at the global level. The resource development and future goals are influenced by increased empowerment in economic and political aspects, and transformations and changes in governance and institutional structures at different levels. Therefore, the major economic challenge is how to meet the new and increasing demand for both human and financial resources. Climate change present factors that influence economic growth and development in the Arctic (Łuszczuk, 2016). It is important to develop and implement strategies that will help in mitigation and adaption of climate change with the aim of establishing a viable and sustainable future for the Arctic.
The World in 2050
People are focusing on the North Pole globally. The North Pole is surrounded by these nations that include Canada, Norway, Denmark, United States, Greenland, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The NORCs are described as the most law-abiding, economically globalized, and trade friendly nations. It is projected that NORC countries will stand out to be the dominant nations globally by 2050 while nations in the equatorial region will find means of survival in the ever-changing globe. This section will reflect the four global forces, by Laurence C. Smith, to discuss the impacts of the four global forces in relation to NORCs countries.
The immigration levels are very low in many NORCs countries. The global warming is likely to reverse this situation and make more individuals immigrate to NORC countries. The rate of immigration has been low in previous years because of the fact that NORC countries experience warmth seasonally. NORC countries experience large temperature variations from winter season to the summer season that causes the existence of frozen soil that usually takes a long period to thaw. This aspect influences many activities in NORCs such as difficulty in building a new infrastructure, the season of construction is very short, small farm outputs, and extremely cold temperatures that make it difficult for people to carry out activities successfully. These conditions were the limiting factor for immigrants interested with NORCs since they would find it ha