International Relations and World Affairs (Essay Sample)
This paper is about international relations, peace development, and conflict resolution techniques. the student was provided with 6 sources to read and develop AN argument on how to promote worldwide peace. the discussion was guided by specific QUESTIONS like the DEFINITION of peace AND methods that can be used to promote peace, among others. in my argument, i chose to focus on three countries as case STUDIES; Brazil, NICARAGUA, and palestine.source..
International Relations and World Affairs
Course Code And Name
International Relations and World Affairs
Peace through Coercion
The idea that one can achieve peace through force has always been central to discussions about international politics. This worldview promotes pessimism about human nature and the idea that competition in international politics is inevitable. Their viewpoint, which they refer to as political realism, states that there are no overarching principles that can be agreed upon by all parties involved in the international system. As there is neither a global authority nor a superior power to whom states are obligated to submit, the condition of international politics can be described as anarchic and unpredictable. This state of affairs is characterized by fluctuating alliances and the threat of violent conflict. Because of ongoing instability and shifting power dynamics, states must formulate policies that serve the immediate national interest, which can be interpreted as acquiring material power and military capability to influence and deter others. At the same time, states must avoid more expansive and humanistic ideas that rely on the trustworthiness or goodwill of others for their success. Because there is no universally accepted moral standard, nations are forced to compete with one another for limited resources and the sense of security that these resources seem to provide. Because of this, countries cannot cooperate in harmony.
Promoting the peaceful conclusion of conflict and retribution is referred to as "conflict resolution" and encompasses the strategies and processes involved. Actively conveying their conflicting objectives or views to the rest of the group and engaging in collective negotiation are two strategies committed members of a group might utilize to resolve issues that arise within the group. As a consequence of how conflict is handled, settlement dimensions frequently coincide with the proportions of the dispute. Disagreements can be settled by employing cognitive approaches, which entail the people engaged in the conflict exchanging their respective ideas, viewpoints, interpretations, and attitudes. A method that is known as emotional resolution can be utilized to settle disagreements successfully. When trying to find a behavioral resolution to a conflict, the behavior of the parties at issue is considered. The processes and tactics for resolving conflicts include negotiation, mediation, mediation-arbitration (in addition to diplomacy and creative approaches to peacebuilding), and mediation based on negotiation. In circumstances where the processes of arbitration or litigation are of the utmost importance, the terms conflict resolution and dispute resolution might be used interchangeably. One component of the concept of conflict resolution is the utilization of non-violent resistance strategies by parties in dispute in order to aid the achievement of effective resolution.
What does it mean to say that peace processes are gendered?
Attempts to promote more inclusive ideas of peace, such as "positive peace," "emancipatory peace," "gendered peace," or "gender-just peace," have been dismissed as unrealistic and, as a result, irrelevant to a thorough examination of war and peace. Examining peace through the lenses of different genders enables one to transition from negative to positive forms of peace. On the other hand, to achieve a positive state of peace, it is necessary not only to reduce or do away with all forms of violence but also to do away with the primary causes of future conflict (Björkdahl & Selimovic, 2016). In an egalitarian conception of "positive peace," equality between ethnic groups and regions is of the utmost importance; nevertheless, equality between the sexes receives noticeably less attention. Readings of good peace from a gendered perspective help us gain a more in-depth knowledge of peace by drawing attention to gender inequalities, relationships of subordination, and the ongoing presence of violence.
Discuss the reality of gendered peace processes
In reality, according to gender studies, democracies are essentially devoid of gender. The democratic peace demonstrates how women are excluded. Males are present, as well as how these two groups are expected to play different roles inside the political system and the world in general, according to a gender viewpoint. One of the primary reasons women are excluded from peace discussions is the widespread presumption that individuals who were not responsible for the beginning of a conflict should not be involved in bringing peace. One can argue that gendered interpretations of peace have led to developing a theoretical model more representative of the security concerns of grassroots communities. As a result of this reevaluation, a new concept called "human security" has come into being. This concept encompasses not just countries but also individuals and groups. Human security is a concept that gives a voice to those who have been silenced and compels us to examine risks in their broader social and political contexts.
Why are constitutions important for the project of peace?
The following is a list of potential advantages that could result from codifying peace agreements in the constitutional form:
* Ensuring that a shift in the status quo will maintain its legitimacy and legality over the long run, Parties frequently seek to have agreements reached in conflicts aimed at altering the political status quo ratified in the form of constitutional amendments, which is a time-consuming process that requires modification of the constitution. This is because constitutional amendments require ratification by a constitutional convention.
* Because of the high level of mistrust between the parties involved in the negotiations, each side would likely look for independent confirmation that the other side would fulfill its obligations. When provisions of a peace accord, such as transitional processes, are put into constitutional form, one's odds of implementation increase, and one's options for dealing with failure to implement the increase.
* Building a Nation: Altering the Constitution can be used as a Symbolic Act to Convince the Population That a New One has replaced the Old Political Order. In order to Convey to the Population That the Old Political Order Has Been Replaced by a New One In order to Establish a New Civic Identity, Participatory methods, for instance, can be of assistance in the formation of national identity when used in the process of creating a constitution on a wide scale. After a violent conflict, it is possible that reconciliation efforts could be helpful; this is especially true when the struggle for resources and power gives way to the construction of a shared vision of the state.
Discuss the term and significance of electoral violence
Election violence is employed to influence either the final results of elections or the actions of key players in those elections. Violence is employed throughout the election process to lend support to a particular political party taking part in the election process. During the campaign period, on Election Day, and in the days immediately following elections, there is often a significant amount of violence in many elections, particularly those that take place in nations in which democracy is still in the process of maturing (Birch et al., 2020). A few days or weeks of electoral violence can result in death tolls higher than the threshold for civil war. This can ruin years of peace and development efforts, cause damage to democratic institutions, and even escalate to civil warfare if the violence is severe enough. As a result of the post-election violence in Côte d'Ivoire following the elections in 2010, more than one thousand civilians were killed, one million people were displaced, and one hundred thousand people fled to neighboring countries (Birch et al., 2020).
What is the rationale behind non-violent peace activism and movements?
To bring about social transformation without resorting to violence, activists often use novel approaches and strategies. The employment of educational campaigns and letters to governments, civil disobedience and non-violent direct action, as well as communication through mass media, are all examples of tactics that have been utilized to bring about social change. The peaceful redistribution of power in society can be accomplished by deploying a wide variety of creative protest acts, as well as mass non-cooperation and non-violent interventions. In recent years, there has been much coverage given to peaceful demonstrations worldwide, such as the Arab Spring and the upheavals in Eastern Europe in 1989.
* Palestine’s ‘Great March of Return
The Great March of Return was able to bring together several different groups since it was a notion that originated from the people. The operations of conventional Palestinian factions do not provide any place for the excitement of the Palestinian people. Individuals and families without political allegiances, who had previously felt excluded from earlier protests due to their lack of political affiliation, actively participated in this protest (Abusalim, 2018). There was representation from civil society, including activists and organizations, as well as clan unions. Many young Palestinians, who had been politically inactive and disillusioned as a result of the Great March of Return, rediscovered their spirit of resistance and participated in the demonstrations d...
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