Deportation of the Acadians in 1755 (Essay Sample)
THIS TASK COMPRISED OF TWO PARTS. IN EACH OF THEM, THE STUDENT OUGHT TO ANSWER ONE QUESTION FROM A POOL OF FIVE SETS. IN EACH OF THEM, THE ANSWER WAS A 3-4 PAGES (800-1200) WORDS DOUBLE-SPACED. IN TOTAL, THE PAPER WAS A MAXIMUM OF 6 PAGES EXCLUDING THE TITLE PAGE. THE CITATION STYLE OF THE PAPER WA SPECIFIED AS CHICAGO.source..
PART A: Deportation of the Acadians in 1755.
Acadians occupied the Nova Scotia region for over 100 years before the advent of France and British visitors to Canada. When the French visited Acadia in 1604, they established a colony on Dochet Island. The British, on arrival some period later, we're also interested in taking over the region. It became a tussle between the 2 European nations. The inhabitants failed to side with one of the opponents. Later on, the Acadians were taken over by the British. The Acadians, the original inhabitants of Port Royal, were flushed out of the region.
When the British took over Acadia in the early 18th century, the inhabitants failed to cooperate to be a form of loyalty to the British. It forced them to negotiate for a neutral position. The French military, in 1753, traveled South and took control of the Ohio Valley. Because they had a peace agreement, the British protested the attack and retaliated by claiming Ohio. It paved the way for a war between the two nations. A year later, a war named the Battle of Jumonville Glen between the French and Indians raised tension. In the process, a French leader named Jumonville and his escort group were killed by the British under the leadership of George Washington, who later served as the first President of the United States. The death of the French leader created more animosity. A combination of the French and original habitants defeated the British, taking over Fayette County. The French-inhabitant group overwhelmed the British forcing them to surrender.[Akins, Thomas B., ed. Acadia and Nova Scotia: Documents relating to the Acadian French and the first British colonization of the province, 1714-1758. Cottonport, La.: Polyanthos, 1972 printing., 1972.]
Before the advent of the French, the Acadians lived peacefully with the British. The period was named the Golden Age of the Acadians because of the good relationship with the English people. They succeeded in agricultural activities. Their population grew six-fold from about 2400 at the start of the 18th century to over 13000 by the 1850s. The origin of the Acadians was France. It was common for them to improve and expand land for agriculture. It was successful for the areas surrounding the Bay of Fundy, where their activities transformed the land into a fertile place favorable for their agricultural activities.[Ibid]
Acadians had good relationships with the indigenous tribes. They ensured while they needed more arable land for farming, their activities did not harm or destroy other groups' way of living. The inhabitants mostly relied on fishing and hunting for survival. Acadians ensured their farming could not bring any tussle with the Mi'kmaq tribes to avoid wars. The Acadians were friendly with everyone around. They coexisted well with the Malecite, Abenaki, and the Mi'kmaq groups. Even in the quest for more arable land, they did not destroy the natives hunting grounds. As lovers of peace and independence, they reclaimed fidal flats to avoid competition for land and resources. Coexistence with natives also opened doors for intermarriage before deportation dealt a blow to their lifestyle.[Ibid]
Under British rule, the Acadians played a neutral political role. They did not have any allegiance to fight for or against the French. Hell broke loose when they opposed a suggestion to sign an oath of allegiance to the king of Great Britain. The British wanted the support of the Acadians when fighting the French. Earlier on, the British force did not mind the neutrality of the Acadians placed them between a rock and a hard place. They preferred a neutral position as long as it didn't affect their peace.
The Governor, Edward Cornwallis, gave the Acadian's threats to push them to sign the oath, but they failed to give in. He even went as far as threatening to expel them from the region, but they were firm to their stand. A year later, a new governor took charge. It is during his tenure that the Acadians faced what is written in history two and half centuries later. Together with his council, he organized a meeting with Acadian leaders. The aim of the meeting was to push them to sign the oath of allegiance. By accepting the process, he means Acadians could join the war against the French. The Acadians, once more, through their representatives, failed to give in.[Bumsted, John M., and Michael C. Bumsted. A history of the Canadian peoples. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1998.]
The Acadians' firm stand didn't go down well with the British. They felt the Acadians were supporting the French just because they did not agree to join them. Another issue pushing the British to the wall was that the Acadians had a good relationship with the Mi'kmaq, who the British perceived as enemies. They also weighed on the option of taking over the arable land reclaimed by the Acadians. At the beginning of 1755, the British attacked the Acadians and forced them into ships. Their intent was to disperse them among British colonies in the South. They were minimizing the probability of the Acadians ganging up with the enemy to form a more vital force.[Ibid]
The deportation led to many deaths resulting from diseases while others drowned in the sea. It split up families up. A few escapees found their way to Louisiana, creating the Cajun culture. A few unlucky Acadians who escaped to Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton later on still suffered after the British captured the regions. It is how the expulsion of the Acadians occurred. Years later, some Acadians made their way back to reunite with their loved ones. The British took over their farms, pushing them to form a new community in Moncton, New Brunswick, where they live to date.
PART B: Causes of Confederation
Confederation was a process whereby the British North American colonies consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada all joined to form Canada Dominion. The Dominion was created on 1st July 1867. Initially, British North America comprised of New Foundland, British Columbia, North-Western territory, and Prince Edward Island. At the start of 1864, colonial politicians acted a way to link up the regions. Their negotiations gave birth to the British North America Act. It facilitated the creation of the Dominion of Canada. Initially, it was only comprised of four provinces; Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Later on, three territories and six provinces joined the confederation.[Federalism as a Way of Life: Reflections on the Canadian Experiment Author(s): Samuel V. LaSelva]
The Canadian provinces grew populous, making it difficult for governance. Initially, the coalition governments tried to bridge and bring together Canada East and Canada West it became increasingly unmanageable. Internal divisions also grew. Members from each side developed rivalries, a move that later caused two rival parties in the assembly. While Canada East and Canada West had the same number of representatives in the legislature, the West had a bigger population. They wanted more seats in the assembly in a campaign dubbed 'rep by pop.' Each group pulled to their side, leading to political deadlocks. Three leaders, George Brown (Clear Grits leader), John A. MacDonald (Liberal-Conservatives leader), and George-Ettiene Cartier, chanted a way to restructure Canada. They had their personal stands regarding their political affiliations. To break the political deadlock, they unanimously put aside their interests to pursue the Great Coalition. The result was the creation of a union linking up all British North American colonies.[Ibid]
A threat of American invasion also pushed the confederation agenda. George Cartier felt like linking up all the regions could reduce the chances of the American invasion. The people were worried about annexation by the U.S. that could pose dominance over their region. The American Civil War that took place a few years earlier instilled fears in the Canadians. The U.S. had a large and powerful army that could mean capturing Canada was an easy task, especially if the latter was divided. The fear
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