Contingency View of Management as a Unifying Theory of Management (Essay Sample)
Order #710 5pg 1500 words Harvard style
> Introduction to Management
> Order ID
> Order Deadline: 12hrs
> can choose one of the following and write a response:
> The contingency view of management is considered the unifying theory of management. Discuss.
> In Chester Barnard's view, an organisation can be ‘efficient' without being ‘effective'. Discuss.
> Discuss your answer, with reference to the key relevant theoretical contributions and academic studies. Please use at least 5, which shld be journals not older than 5years academic references, mainly academic journals, published books and the reading list for the subject. Response should be 1500 words.
> Suggestive Relevant Theoretical Contributions and Academic Studies:
> -Scientific Management
> -Managing Complexity (Bureaucracy)
> -(Managing People) Human Relations Movement
> -Fordism and Lean Production
> -Contingency Theory
> -Organisational Culture
> -Diversity (precarious workers & disadvantage)
> Academic Level
> .College Level
> Sources: 5
Contingency View of Management as a Unifying Theory of Management
Name of Student
Contingency view of management is a leadership model based on the behaviors which emphasize the differences of the problems faced by the management of a certain business for a period of time given. In management, it argues that solving several issues faced by a manager does not have an all-encompassing method. It is also applied in making decisions of large companies by the owner, as well as the strategies for motivating employees and determining the structure of an organization. This approach also stresses on the ownership and managerial decisions aimed at changing the environment faced by specific problems. Contingency theory also asserts that managers must take into account all current situational aspects and effectively act on these aspects in managing situations at hand, hence making decisions that will definitely solve the problems. According to this theory, the situation is what determines the management or leadership style to be used. This paper, therefore, aims at discussing the several ways in which the contingency view of management act as a unifying theory of management.
Leadership as a process that involves an interaction of people with each other and their environments
According to contingency view of management, leadership is a social process involving people. Management as a human factor is very important since people working together in an organization need to be brought together for a common purpose and goal. According to Contingency theory of management, one can access the situational favourability in an organization in three ways; through leader-member relationship. This element mainly addresses the manager's comprehensive relations with his team members within an organization.
Secondly, the task structure, which is a type of element that relates to whether the combination of the work is highly structured or subjected to the required procedures as well the subject to enough measures of assessment. Some specific tasks are always easy to structure and access to the operation of an assembly line of organization members. Finally, the theory provides the position power element which normally is concerned with manager's level of authority in an organization. This is mainly based rewarding the best performing employees or punishing of other behaviors. Moreover, it states whether the manager derives his powers from providing extra bonuses for the employees who meet the sales objectives in an organization or terminating the employees' contract for failure to meet the goals.
Motivational Approaches to Leadership
Application of the contingency views to management has its foundation based on the contingency theory of the effectiveness of leadership (Shao, Feng & Hu, 2016, pg. 145). In addition, this theory further explains that the effectiveness of leadership relates to a group in two major factors; the task motivation and relation motivation along with the circumstances. These two components can be measured by least preferred co-worker scale. This scale normally obligates the manager to identify the individual they rarely like working with then set a rate for that specific individual based on some management questions. Moreover, scores are always as either cooperative or non-cooperative. Contingency theory believes that individuals who usually have the highest score on this scale score always do maintain harmony in their organization work relationship while the people with less score are known for being motivated to focus more on work accomplishment. In addition, the theory outlines those relation motivations or task in the organization are always contingent upon the manager whether he or she is able to both manage and affect the people's situational favourability and outcome (Shao, Feng & Hu, 2016, pg. 135).
Consolidation of the leader-member relationship, task type and the power position in an organization creates a wide different situation. Situations are usually divided into three major sections; Favourable, unfavorable and finally the intermediate situations. As stated by the contingency theory, each of this different situations is usually managed by either the top or low least preferred co-worker scale (Cederlund, 2015, pg. 90). In addition, the theory argues that the top managers in this scale are appropriate at influencing the employee's behavior in intermediate setting while the low managers in the scale are most appropriate in the unfavorable and favorable situation.
Multivariate Analysis Technique
Contingency theory rejects the point that there is only one way to manage an organization. It proposes that managers must always establish each evaluation and come up with most appropriate solutions to such situations. This approach basically needs the managers to avoid depending on policies and rules as their only guide to making decisions (Li et al, 2017, pg. 35). The dynamic managers who comprehend and applies the contingency theory in their organizations always operates in the midst of alertness and vigilance that demands their faculties. This theory encourages managers to make a decision concerning the organization as a whole. Manager’s performances must reflect the culture, the employee’s commitments and safety. In addition, the manager must respond to the problems attacking the company immediately after they are noticed. Double multiple foci of the manager in an organization motivate even the employees towards achieving the set goals and as well enhance good relationship within the workplace.
For a manager to achieve a good working environment for the employees, he or she should be consistent in the application of the contingency theory. Managers must always be ready to evaluate the possible inputs that can contribute to any challenge in an organization. For example, the use of drop in activity, the manager should be able to discover what has resulted in this. An example is that of the bonus program set to the employees (Li et al, 2017, pg. 37). the shift of individual recognition to the team recognition and the loss of some benefits may result in each problem in an organization. Therefore the contingency managers have to be able to intergrade all these threats that affect the organizations and make effective decisions about each threat that create a conducive environment for the employees.
Pragmatic Nature of Contingency Theory
Current management have evolved to solve different management problems and systematic utilization of human resources. In order to reduce the problems that an organization can be imposed to by the scientific management the employee’s productivity is always on top when they are supervised by the manager (Wang, Wu & Zhang, 2016, pg. 185). A contribution of workers is always considered with the provision of job security that has rules and regulations. Transparent information sharing between the employees of different ranks and the manager creates a close relation in a workplace that results in the improvement of the company as well as the best working environment with the organization.
Element of Maturity
The contingency theory as well act as a unifying factor in an organization by stating that instead of a manager using one style in management, successful leaders should always change their leadership styles based on the element of maturity of the individuals that they are leading and the type of the work in an organization(Romero et al, 2015, pg.263) . From the context of this theory, the leaders like the manager should be able to emphasize mostly on the task and the relation between them and the people they are leading depending on the goals of the organization achieved successfully. Maturity levels always vary on the incompetence or unwillingness to do a certain task or willingness and being able to perform the task. A successful leader will adopt leadership procedure to match the maturity level of the employees. When a leader is able to mold his or her approach to the employees in a mature manner, the outcome in the productivity of the organization will always be positive. These mature approaches motivate the employees in a certain wa...
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