Political Science, Structionist and Deconstructionist Theories, and American and European Migrations (Essay Sample)
To find out how majority of issues and problems which are in particular interest of us require a multi-disciplinary approach. this sample is about how examine literary texts, critical analysis is necessary which will provide powerful means to assess and evaluate the cultural and social forms of the past and the present as well.source..
Political Science, Structionist and Deconstructionist Theories, and American and European Migrations
1.0 POLITICAL SCIENCE AND THE SOCIETY
Political science is viewed as the study of the State (Caesar, 2013). The science seeks to study the political process, the governance of the State, how laws are made, and the constitution. In the most developed nations and countries that have a rich political history such as Britain, France, United States, and Germany, political science strives to examine the various form of governance under various administrations â€“ and to identify how these political regimes have influenced [or de-influenced] specific nations (Caesar, 2013). Termed as the oldest form of social sciences that dates back to the Greek philosophy, the science of politics has been examined by Aristotle who says that the discipline provides a platform through which political phenomena can be challenged, compared, and contrasted for improvement. The significance of politics is to provide national governance through the institution of laws and policies that shape behavior. Another criticality of political science is to design and to establish administration systems that are responsible for the needs of the Nation. These needs can best be addressed when there are proper tax collection regimes â€“ and when taxes are allocated for respective national needs.
Political governance proves a crucial part of any nation. It looks at how the Government behaves and provides an important benchmark through which the ideologies of the State can be challenged to provide better leadership. An extension of political science is to provide civic education and to improve education and learning throughout the State. A publication by the American Enterprise Institute (2013) supports that political science has played a central part in civic education. It provides the society with the information necessary to identify flaws in national governance. Civic education acts as an important aspect in encouraging social transformation and in keeping pace with emerging issues of social nature. In this relation, public policy [as manifested in political science] not only guides the administration of governances, it equally provides a framework that is recognized by every national court; high court, court of appeal, and supreme courts. Public policy, as described under political science, refer to the broader administrative and institutional framework that governs behavior, stipulates restrictions and limitations, and sets boundaries responsible for shaping behavior in the State.
Political science, similar to other social science studies, has played an instrumental part in the society. It determines how the Government should respond in light with the needs and concerns of people. An important part of influencing the behavior and conduct of the State is by calling upon various heads of the Government to respond immediately to the needs of people. This section of the paper, therefore, notes that political science is important as it helps the public to lay claims to selected proprietary interests â€“ and to demand immediate action and fair compensation by the ruling class which is the State. This analysis believes that while the society expresses concerns and demands the State to respond to their duties, governments have jurisdictions over the public and can determine or call upon the society to abandon certain practices. This jurisdiction is mainly manifested in form of laws, policies, legislations, and regulations that are well-documented and endorsed by the constitution. Therefore, political science can be seen as the study of the relationship between the society and the State. It identifies the various characteristics of the Government and influences the society to raise alarm on issues of national concern. Where possible, the State oversees the general behavior of the public â€“ and sets measures to align the actions, behavior and conduct of the society in line with internationally recognized standards.
This analysis therefore supports that political science should form an important part of civic education. The discipline should constantly be developed to ensure it addresses gaps in the society. An important part of political science is to enable government officials to make important decisions as pertains to public governance. Most nations across the world are facing issues in globalization, foreign relationships, military confrontations and misuse of public funds. American, for example, is on the blink of national election meaning that an understanding of State matters will greatly be required to ensure that those elected into Government offices have the capacity to deliver the duties they oath. Political science therefore proves instrumental for the proper governance of the nation and for instilling the required political values needed for public administration.
2.0 AMERICAN STRUCTIONIST AND POST DECONSTRUCTIONIST THEORIES
2.1 Structionism Theories
Social constructionism is seen as a societyâ€™s construction of perspectives and believes of how people see the reality. It is a theory of knowledge and communication that determines how people in the society have constructed their knowledge in a range of jointly and shared assumptions (Culler, 2007). Structionism looks at how communities have constructed their knowledge and experiences around certain cultural and traditional ideologies.
America as a country has established a range of theories and models that are intended to shape their common knowledge, experiences, and assumptions. The first of these theories is constitutionalism whereby the countryâ€™s behaviors, conducts, and day-to-day lifestyles are governed by a set of laws. Commonly viewed as a legal boundary, constitutionalism allows the State to behave in line with set principles and legal practices. This means that deviance to popularly known legal constructs culminates to the violation of State laws and attracts punishment as stipulated in the constitution. However, like any developed and democratic nations, United States constitutionalism gives citizens the right to free and fair trial meaning that violators cannot be apprehended without a due hearing in a court of law.
The second structionist theory of the American cultural society is positivism. Research supports that if there is one thing that defines â€˜all Americansâ€™ is their positive outlook to life (Barry, 2002). United States citizens strive to exemplify the values of courtesy, to demonstrate respect, and to champion the principles of integrity and generosity. Above principles promote cohesion and integration, serve to eliminate discrimination, oppression and segregation. For a nation that has struggled with myriad issues of racial manipulation and discrimination, positivism serves to ensure the society is coherent to understand the needs of all people regardless of religious, educational, and ethnic affiliations.
2.2 Deconstructionism Theories
Deconstruction is the general outlook of the relationship between a text and its meaning. It examines how both literal and philosophical languages emphasize the internal relations between conceptual systems and the language itself (Eagleton, 2008). A range of theories are defined under deconstruction and some of these concepts reflect the American cultures and literatures. The first of these is the differance theory that holds the meaning of certain words comes from the synchronity and relationship with other words within the same language (Eagleton, 2008). Differance also comes from the relationship between specific words and their relationship with the historical and contemporary definition. The above theory of deconstructionism states that many words derive meaning on how they differ with other texts. For example, the word â€˜houseâ€™ gets it function from how well it differs from â€˜shedâ€™, â€˜mansionâ€™, â€˜buildingâ€™ or even â€˜hotelâ€™. The differance theory of deconstruction has been applied by selected British authors and French scholars including Shakespeare and the French writer and philosopher Rousseau.
Metaphysics is the second theory in deconstructionism. It looks at an individual desire for meaning and examines how people in the society [or even the readers of texts] interpret phrases and texts (Aristotle and McMahon, 2007). Metaphysics has made it possible for readers and the society to read and to understand the text of scholars. This way, it is possible for scholars, educators, the government and organisations to communicate to the society, to inform, and to educate no matter how subtly they use certain expressions. This analysis believes that both differance and metaphysics are important concepts when it comes to examining American post structuralist and post-deconstructionist literal and cultural theories. The post structionist theory is a representation of the American culture (Barry, 2002) and the latter [post-deconstructionist] is a representation of the literatures and literal works.
The metaphysics theory is highly used in poetry. However in metaphysical theory, the style is a bit different from that of conventional sources. The major characteristics shared by poems that use the theory of metaphysics is that; they are intellectualized, use frequent paradoxes, use strange imagery, and contains complicated thoughts. Deconstruction has greatly been used as a technique for reading complex texts. The emergence of deconstruction gained entry in United States when literal organisations and departments of literature sought to have new ways of interpreting and expounding literal texts. Another theory related to deconstruction is the â€˜reader response theoryâ€™ that contends the meaning of a text is deriv...
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