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The Spread of Industrial Revolution in Europe (Essay Sample)


How did industrial revolution spread in Europe after 1815


Analysis of The Spread of Industrial Revolution in Europe after 1815.
The industrial revolution refers to the process of change to new manufacturing processes in Europe in the period between 1820 and 1840. The changes that took place between this period included; changing production from hand to machines development of steam and water power, development of machine tools and new chemical manufacturing. This change happened gradually over the continent, positively impacting the economy and the society at large. This paper analyses the methods, reasons and impact of the spread of the Industrial Revolution to the rest of Europe after 1815.
The industrial revolution was triggered by the high population growth rate in Europe in the middle of the 18th Century. A high population provided enough labour for most of the uprising industries (Chapman, Stanley pg50). Skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour which was readily available provided for rapid growth in industries, and massive production of agricultural produce. At the same time, the increase in food production also gave another advantage, not only did the people get enough food for consumption but also had a surplus for trading and selling.
Increased innovation in Britain led to the invention of the first spinning frame. This machine, which was used to card and spin fibres had an impact on the cotton industry and also spearheaded the speed invention of other industries (Mokyr, Joel. Pg185). The iron industry was the second industry to shoot. Soon, people discovered ways of turning coal into fuel (Chapman, Stanley pg50). This discovery provided enough fuel to process iron ore into iron products. Soon, steam engines were build which used steam as the power source. Coal was burnt in furnace ovens with big long chimneys which were a product of ironworks.
Soon, workers started living near the industries, which later grew into centres. After a few years, the centres grew into villages which expanded into towns and cities (Chapman, Stanley pg50). Trade cities such as Manchester were formed. Cotton and coal were the main products that were produced. Working hours were increased, and as a result, payment was increased. Trade and industrial cities spread and hastened the industrial revolution in Britain (Mokyr, Joel. Pg185). However, the growth and expansion of these cities had several disadvantages including environmental pollution, child labour, many street children, social crimes such as theft, prostitution and the spread of hygienic diseases such as cholera.
In conclusion, the industrial revolution had a great impact on the society. Firstly, it created a class struggle in the western world. The middle class, who were mostly the owners of the factors of production, become dominant over the lower class by accumulating a lot of wealth, while the working or the lower class lived in horrific conditions. On the plus side, the improvement in technology made Britain shift from an agrarian-based to an urban society. The technology reduced hard labour, provided electricity and even eased the movement of people, goods and services around the continent.Works Cited
Mokyr, Joel. "Entrepreneurship and the industrial revolution in Britain." The invention of enterprise: Ent

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