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Animal Genetics (Essay Sample)


The project was about animal genetics in India.

Animal Genetics
In medicine, genetics is a branch of biology that refers to the study of heredity, genes and genetic variation in living organisms (Ormandy et al. 544). Genetics is considered a biological field by many scholars but the scientific phenomena intersect with several life sciences linked to studies of the information system. Historically, Gregor Mendel is referred to as the father of genetics as he was the founder. The late 19th-century scientist studied how traits were inherited from parents and offsprings. His investigations were based on patterns on how traits were transferred from parents to the offsprings. In his results, Mendel concluded that living organisms more so animals inherit traits through discrete units of inheritance (genes). Having understood what genes are (discrete units of inheritance), this, therefore, analyzes the concepts of animal genetics based on historical backgrounds, risks involved and the significance in the East (India).
Historical Background of Animal Genetics in India
The system of livestock production in India is based on the traditional technologies and low-cost agro-by-products (Navani et al. 148).The main purpose of livestock production was for milk production, meat, fiber and draft powder. These findings noted that despite the huge demand for the livestock products, the land holding in India was variably small. In this case, large herds of buffalos and cattle existed in the periphery of large cities and towns mainly for milk supply. However, pigs and small ruminants were reared under semi-intensive and extensive production systems.
In 1926, the Agricultural Royal Commission recommended that livestock farming in India be researched on in a systematic and planned manner. After analyzing the prevailing situation at that time, the Commission stressed the necessity to establish an institution that would oversee animal genetics and breeding. After thorough considerations, a genetic research unit was founded (Navani et al. 148). Immediately after the Indian independence, the Institute developed and emerged to a full-fledged division. This played a crucial role as it later emerged as a genetic research center on milk production in Karnal after acting as a mere stimulus. In the subsequent years, several institutions started training and research programs to ascertain the relevance of animal breeding and genetics.
With the acknowledgment of the unique significance of poultry and tropical animal hereditary resources and their potential global applications, a need was felt for an association which could undertake the duty of assessing, certifying and conserving the varied and rich germplasm resources (Navani et al. 146). The resources are accessible in the country and whose hereditary base is diminishing. In this way, the foundation of National Institute of Animal Genetics in 1984 was a summit of maintained endeavors made by the geneticist’s professionals in the nation throughout the years.
Are their Risks to Animal Genetics?
Cloning is a hereditary term used to refer to the replication of certain specialized cells from the main parent cell. Additionally, it also refers to the replication of certain parts of the DNA or cell to propagate the required genetical traits in the filial generation (Ormandy et al. 544). Cloning is of three types namely; reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning, and the DNA-cloning. In regards to these findings, the term has been used to refer to reproductive cloning, which tackles the welfare of animals. Cloning is relevant when the main objective is to generate animals with similar nuclear traits of the DNA as the previous animal or the current. In medicine, the process where this kind of heredity is generated if termed as Somatic Cell Nuclear transfer (SCNT) (Ormandy et al. 544).
In the past decades, other than India, the genetic engineering of animals has increased globally. However, the use of this technology accompanies itself with some ethical issues that if not addressed properly, may result in serious challenges t the animal welfare. Some of the challenges are related to the animal welfare, which is accredited by the World Health Organization as the “state of animals” (Robinson et al. 48).
This issue must be addressed by all relevant stakeholders including all qualified veterinarians to substantiate if all the parties are aware of the ethical issues entailed. In this case, they can make a valid contribution to the existing debate concerning the use of the genetically created animals. Additionally, it is of great significance to aim at reflecting the societal values that are within the scientific inventions in terms of technology. This implies that there can be scientific inventions that provides societal benefits but may be ethically contentious. Due to the several challenges that the genetically modified animals bring, bodies charged with this mandate have started to develop certain policies that monitors the welfare of the animals in terms of the possible impacts (Robinson et al. 46). In this manner, veterans are the key point’s men that can spearhead the whole process such as the research setting.
While in the process of creating new genetically engineered animals, blastocysts, and the oocyte donor are induced to the process of superovulation via the subcutaneous injection of hormones or intraperitoneal. At times, genetically engineered embryos are implanted to the female recipients. Male animals may also be vasectomized surgically under conditions of general anesthesia and later used to enhance pseudopregnancy in the embryo of the females, where all offsprings require to be genotyped. This is made possible ...
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