7 pages/≈1925 words
Religion & Theology
This Is A Summarized History Of The Second Temple Of Israel (Essay Sample)
This Is A Summarized History Of The Second Temple Of Israelsource..
Intertestamental Period: The Second Temple
Submitted To [Professor’s Name]
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Completion of the Course,
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057373" Introduction PAGEREF _Toc349057373 \h 3
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057375" The Zerubbabel Entry PAGEREF _Toc349057375 \h 3
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057376" The Great Assembly PAGEREF _Toc349057376 \h 4
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057377" The Hasmonean Dynasty PAGEREF _Toc349057377 \h 5
The HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057378" Herodian Dynasty and the Struggle between Sons of Herod PAGEREF _Toc349057378 \h 6
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057379" The Tetrarchy Leadership PAGEREF _Toc349057379 \h 6
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057380" Major Events during the Second Temple Period PAGEREF _Toc349057380 \h 7
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057381" Maccabean Dynasty PAGEREF _Toc349057381 \h 9
HYPERLINK \l "_Toc349057382" The fall of the Zadokite Priesthood PAGEREF _Toc349057382 \h 9
Intertestamental Period: The Second Temple
The historical significance in the rebuilding of the Second Temple is that this period went through a number of events both in political and religious spheres that largely defined the way of life during the time of Jesus. The Second Temple period, which lasted between 516 BCE and 70 CE, witnessed a number of political and religious transformations in the Jewish history with the spreading of Christianity among the Jewish people. Moreover, the end of the Second Temple period was as drastic as its beginning with the rise of Jewish-Roman war and the subsequent destruction of the temple and the city of Jerusalem. As a result of these events, groups and individuals, who lived during that period, encountered new religious and cultural practices which were so uncommon to Judeans. A number of events could be deduced from this period because it is an influential period in the study of the religious and political history of the Jewish and their neighbors. This paper discusses a brief history of the Second Temple period, highlighting the events and individuals who influenced the Jews and the land of Israel.
The Zerubbabel Entry
The Second Temple Period is crucial in the history of the Jewish people not so for the duration of the period, around 600 hundred years to be precise, but because of the numerous prominent dynasties and rulers that were in reign during this period. Because of the multiplicity and frequent change of leaders, various political and religious ideologies were born during this period. This period was characterized by the repatriation of the Jewish people, led by Zerubbabel who descended from the House of David. A hundred years later, Ezra the Scribe also led the return of the second group of Jews to Israel, establishing a different self-rule under the Persians from 538 to 333 BCE and Ptolemaic and Seleucid — collectively known as a Hellenistic regime – from 332 to 142 BCE. It was the return of the second group of Jews under Ezra that inspired the uprising of different leadership regimes in the land of Israel. This also encouraged the construction of the Second Temple even though this period is believed to begin 200 years before the actual construction began.
The Great Assembly
Similarly, the second group also inspired the refortification of the walls surrounding Jerusalem and establishment of the Great Assembly in Israel which was known as Anshei Knesset HaGedolah. The assembly was charged with the responsibility to act as overseer in religious and judicial matters concerning the Jewish people, which signified the official beginning of the Second Temple period. Judah thus came about as a trustworthy state in the large Persian Empire which could be trusted with matters of priesthood and formation of the council of elders in the entire Jerusalem. This period had a number of dynasties such as the Hasmonean dynasty which ruled for 80 years between 142-63 BCE. The dynasty was led by several leaders starting with Mattathias who was a direct descendant of the Hasmonean family and succeeded by his son Judah Maccabee. Their rein saw the entry of the Jews in Jerusalem and purification of the Temple and establishment of the annual festival Hannuka.
The Hasmonean Dynasty
Around this time, the Seleucids regained their autonomy from Judea following a series of victories over Hasmoneans. The Hasmonean family was friendly to the Seleucids allowing them to regain autonomy it has lost before. This was a political transformation that was happening in the land of Israel around this period. The autonomous Kingdom of Seleucids lasted only for eighteen years from 147 BCE to 129 BCE when the independence of the Jewish people was achieved. During the period of Hasmonean dynasty, a lot of political consolidations were happening. The kingdom even regained several miles in boundaries akin to the Solomon’s realm, allowing the Jewish nation to flourish and expand its influence in the political and religious spheras in Judea.
The complexion of the building works on the Second Temple by Zerubbabel, Sheshbazzar's nephew, who followed him as governor from 522 BCE, was a significant to the history of the Jews people in Israel. A number of factors contributed to the growing need of construction of the Second Temple. The First Temple was returned to the Jews as facilitation and encouragement to rebuild it. As noted by Anderson, the original structure of the Second Temple, before Hasmoneans refurbished it, was done by Herod at the decree of King of Persia called Cyrus II the Great. Even with the decree of the King of Persia that the Second Temple should be constructed in the land of Jews, there was an opposition from aggressors who had subjugated Judea after their exile. These people had a direct connection with the aristocracy of Samaria. However, others, like Haggai and Zechariah, encouraged the complexion of the Second Temple. The rebuilding works continued in the second year of reign of Darius, around 521 BCE. There was a lot of resistance to the rebuilding of the Second Temple fro...
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