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Engineering
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Lab Report
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# Lab Report for Frequency Response of Networks (Lab Report Sample)

Instructions:

This is a Lab Report Assignment recently done for an online client for their submittal for an electrical engineering coursework. The main idea of this lab is to get a brief view about the Frequency Response of different kind of RC, RL and RLC circuits. This study gives understanding of how to implement different type of electronic filters for some real time applications. By combination of R, C & L, this system can represent different characteristics by varying the frequencies of the input signals.

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Content:

LAB REPORT
FOR
FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF
NETWORKS
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………...1
Introduction & Theory…………………………………………………………………………….2
Procedures and Readings …………………………………………………………………………3
1 Low Pass Filter …………………………………………………………………………...3
1 RC Circuit Low Pass Filter ……………………..………………………………………...3
2 RL Circuit Low Pass Filter…………………………………………………………….….6
2 Series RLC Circuit………………………………………………………………….…….7
3 Band Pass Filter…………………………………………………………………………...9
4 Band Stop Filter …………………………………………………………………………10
5 Twin-T Filter …………………………………………………………………………….11
Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………….12
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………12
References ……………………………………………………………………………………….13
ABSTRACT
The main idea of this lab is to get a brief view about the Frequency Response of different kind of RC, RL and RLC circuits. This study gives understanding of how to implement different type of electronic filters for some real time applications. By combination of R, C & L, our system can represent different characteristics by varying the frequencies of the input signals. We are going to learn different characteristics of these filters that how these filters pass only specific range of frequencies and rejects the unwanted range of frequencies.
INTRODUCTION & THEORY:
This lab introduces different type of Electronic Filters and to get us practical understanding about their frequency responses. To observe the frequency response of a circuit, we see the variation in the voltage or current with change in frequency. A filter is a device or process that removes unwanted components from a signal and gives a required signal at their output. There are three major electronic components which are being used to build filter resistor, capacitor and inductor.
Filters are excessively used in electronic and telecommunication fields, in radio, television, audio recording and processing, image processing, control systems, radar, music processing, and computer graphics. Brief introduction of filters is given as under:
1 Low Pass Filter
A low pass filter passes low-frequency signals and blocks high-frequency signals. In other words, low-frequency signals can pass much easier and with low resistance while high-frequency signals have much harder getting through, this is why it is called a low pass filter. Low pass filters can be designed by using resistors with either capacitors or inductors. A low pass filter which is being composed of a resistor and a capacitor is called a low pass RC filter. And a low pass filter composed of a resistor and an inductor is called a low pass RL filter.
2 High Pass Filter
A high pass filter passes high-frequency signals and blocks low-frequency signals. High pass filters can be designed by using resistors with either capacitors or inductors. A high pass filter which is being composed of a resistor and a capacitor is called a high pass RC filter. And a high pass filter composed of a resistor and an inductor is called a high pass RL filter.
3 Band Pass Filter
A band pass filter rejects lower and higher frequencies and passes only a specified frequencies band. In this type of filter two cut-off frequencies are involved, one for lower band and one for higher band and the allowed region is between these two cut-off frequencies. This is composed of resistor, capacitor and inductors combination and can be designed by their orientation.
4 Band Stop Filter
A band stop filter passes lower and higher frequencies and rejects only a specified frequencies band. In this type of filter two cut-off frequencies are involved, one for lower band and one for higher band and the rejected region is between these two cut-off frequencies. This is composed of resistor, capacitor and inductors combination and can be designed by their orientation.
5 Twin T Notch Filter
34861501283335Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Twin T Notch FilterFigure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Twin T Notch Filterright5960457The upper T configuration of resistors R and capacitor C form the low-pass filter portion, while the lower T configuration of capacitors C and resistor R form the high-pass filter portion. The frequency at which this basic twin-T notch filter design will offers maximum attenuation is called the notch frequency, ƒN which is

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