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zica virus (Lab Report Sample)

the task is a lab report on the emergence of the zika virus. its origin, if it was a pandemic or epidemic, and treatment methods. the information was also supposed to explain where the virus was first discovered and how it affects the human population in terms of health and economics. the report has also cited the challenges facing the development of zica virus vaccine source..
ZIKA VIRUS Name Lecturer Course Date ZIKA VIRUS Emerging diseases are newly emerging diseases that the globe does not know about. These diseases include the H1N1 virus, ZIKA virus (ZIKV), Covid-19 among others. The diseases are either caused by viruses or bacteria. The spread and infection rate of the emerging diseases is either pandemic, epidemic, or endemic. In the year 1947 a new virus emerged, the Zika virus, it was discovered during an investigation of yellow fever by the Rockefeller foundations which was at the time in east Africa. During that period it was seen to have spread in Africa and Asia but had not been announced as an epidemic (Dhama et al., 2020). The virus was stared detected in Uganda in Zika forest near Entebbe in a monkey but later it was identified in humans by the year 1952 (Beaver et al., 2018). On the island of Yap, the first large widespread of the virus broke in the year 2007 (Poland et al., 2018). Currently, several countries experience Zika virus outbreaks. Since when it was reported, outbreaks of the virus in Africa’s tropics, southeast of Asia, and in the pacific islands (Silva et al., 2020). A disease is stated to be epidemic when the effect is felt within a large radius by a community or a region while a pandemic usually spreads over several countries (Dhama et al., 2020). Pandemic and epidemic are very different based on the contagious effect of a disease, the number of infections (Nii-Trebi, 2017). As an epidemic, Zika was reported in the February of 2016 in Brazils. At the time more than seventy-four countries had been hit by the virus (Malik et al., 2020). Since the virus had not been felt or spread worldwide the disease is an epidemic but the world health organization in the year 2016 declared the end of the Zika virus epidemic (Poland et al., 2018). The pathogen behind the disease is caused by the virus from the flavivirus genus (Baker et al., 2021). The Flavividae family is a member of the Spondweni group (Yadav et al., 2020). This gene was first identified from a monkey from the Zika forest then later identified in mosquitoes and finally in the year 1952 identified in the first human case in the nation of Nigeria. There exist two linages of the zika virus that is the African lineage and the Asian lineage, the lineages have in recent years spread into the pacific and the continent of America (Haidere et al., 2021). The pathogen flaviviruses are only spread by the arthropod vectors, while the virus is transmitted by the mosquito which is a member of the Aedes genus (Trovato et al., 2020). The single stranded RNA neurotropic flavivirus (Paixão et al., 2018). The flaviviruses have a lipid layer that is derived from the host cell. The viral layer is made of glycoprotein which is conjoined into the membrane of the host cell (Silva et al., 2020). The viral capsid that contains the single-stranded genome is enveloped by the viral (Yadav et al., 2020). A polyprotein of the size of an amino acid is encoded by the genome (Beaver et al., 2018). At the end of the genome three genes are localized, precursor membrane, proteins, and capsid the process is followed by seven genes which are non-structural proteins NS1 and NS5 (Dhama et al., 2020). These proteins are either RNA-dependent or involved with the regulation of the replication of the viral (Haidere et al., 2021). The protein E is a necessary envelope for cell attachment and their infection (Yadav et al., 2020). When the host is infected protein E releases neutralizing antibodies for neutralization (Silva et al., 2020). The analysis of the phylogenetic of the ZIKV isolated from monkeys, mosquitoes,s, and human being distinguished the two types of the genotype which are most significant in Africa and Asia and are epidemic. According to (Dhama et al., 2020) if carefully dried from the brain ZIKV can be re-isolated in over 30 months when stored under 0 to 4 degrees and the brains can be treated with variable amounts of potassium. ZIKV is mostly transmitted through mosquito bites found in the African tropics and Asia (Beaver et al., 2018). Experiments done on the Aedes aegypti mosquitos have clearly shown that the species is very capable of transmitting the disease (Yadav et al., 2020). Other Aedes mosquitos have also been categorized as potential transmitters of the disease (Haidere et al., 2021). These species are Ae. Polynesiensis, Ae. Albopictus among others. Other modes of infections are during the materno foetous delivery which mostly happens during the delivery process, sexual transmission and during the blood transfusion in hospitals (Baker et al., 2021). The virus enters into the epidermal keratinocyte and the fibroblast immature cells have been derived through its main surface layer of the glycoprotein (Dhama et al., 2020). The main host of the virus is the Aedes aegytis or the Aedes albopictus mosquitoes which also act as the host medium for the virus. While inside the host the incubation of the ZIKV virus is three to fourteen days. The virus lasts longer in semen than it does in blood. Other hosts of the virus are the non-human pirates such as the monkeys who are the main receivers of the virus (Silva et al., 2020). Most of the people who were infected by the virus did not experience any kind of symptoms but those who did experience negligible or mild fever, headaches, pain in the joints and muscles. These symptoms were only felt after a period of three to fourteen days which is equivalent to the incubation period of the virus (Yadav et al., 2020). Not long after the discovery of the ZIKV virus, the virus was isolated from the place of its origin from the Aedes Africanus the virus was isolated from the urine and autopsy of samples of the C6/36 mosquito cell. Recent studies discovered that the ZIKV virus is capable of causing febrile illness that resembles dengue fever (Beaver et al., 2018). Further studies concluded that there exist three distinct viral lineages (Yadav et al., 2020). There is little known about the genetic relationship of the three viral lineages due to the difference in the geographical position where they are found (Silva et al., 2020). Moreover for the epidemic of the Yaps, and the Federated States of Micronesia, the stain and geographical origin have not been discovered (Haidere et al., 2021). Up to date there exist vital challenges for the development of the ZIKV virus vaccine despite the prosperous results of the first clinical trials conducted on both humans and animals (Yadav et al., 2020). Studies have resolved the virus and the protein that contributes to the pathogenicity of the ZIKV virus and have defined the entry receptor and cell tropism to the candidate (Beaver et al., 2018). Despite the in-depth studies of the virus, there are no better vaccines for the virus since different candidates are different thus determining the immune systems that are associated with protection is a challenging task. World Bank estimates that the social-economic impacts of the ZIKV virus epidemic in regions of America and the Caribbean are a total of 3.5 billion dollars or 0.6 % of the total GDP (Dhama et al., 2020). Currently, there are few related cases as a result of tourism or domestic traveling in the USA or any other region of the world (Yadav et al., 2020). Research...
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