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Evaluation Properties Of Saline Water Based Muds / Saturated Salt Muds (Lab Report Sample)


read the lab manual for Laboratory Experiment No. 10 Salt Water Based Muds read the lab experiment carefully, there are 2 questions also answer them . ill attach an example for the old lab report to give an idea for how to write (read carefully to see the steps). ill attach the tables and charts add them to the report i need 5 pages 1400-1600 words but with the charts and table it will be more around 14-16 pages. from the lab manual: 2) Objective of the experiment and brief introduction. 3) Short, step-by-step outline of the procedure. (Do not itemize the procedure, use properly structured sentences.) 4) All measurements and data taken in the lab. 5) A sample calculation 6) Results in a table form. 7) Drawings of equipment used in the experiment. 8) Answers to questions, additional problems, and graphs that may be needed as specified in that lab. 9) Discussion of results 10) Sources of error 11) Conclusions. 12) References one of the references is the lab manual

Student’s Name
Professor’s Name
Course Title
Date of Submission
Salt Water Based Muds
This study was meant to help the learners in understanding the evaluation of the properties of saline water based muds/ saturated salt muds.
To begin with, four groups each comprising 3 people were formed. Each of the group was given two samples containing different concentrations of Aquagel and Zeogel. Water was introduced to each sample to form the desired drilling fluid. Then, the salt water based mud samples were formed by adding salt into the samples. Finally, some part of the salt water based mud had fresh water added to it for dilution. Each of the 4 groups was assigned a different weighed concentration of clay such as 8%, 6%, 4% and 2%.
At the start of the experiment, the learners were required to determine the necessary amount of samples for calculating the mud density. Specific equations were used in calculating the amount of water and clay as indicated in the calculations part. Each of the samples was weighed using a digital scale to get the specific amount of clay (gm). The mass of the clay was dependent on the needed sample concentration (pp) that was convertible using the calculations. After preparing the samples, each was dissolved in 500 milliliter of fresh water using a blender cup; the graduated cylinder was used in measuring the water used to create the desired concentration of the mud in (ppb). Furthermore, dissolving the mud for several minutes using a mud mixture ensured that a uniform mixture was created by making the clay particles to get sufficient contact with the water CITATION Fat152 \l 2057 (Belyadi).
After realizing a uniform mud, measuring the mud density occurred via utilization of a mud balance. During this step, the mud cup was filled with the sample and then covered with a lid while allowing only a small fraction of the mud to escape. The balance’s arm was positioned at the pivot while the sliding load was adjusted till both sides balanced. Then, the density was recorded (ppg) from the LHS of the sliding weight. After determining the mud density, the mud sample was taken back into the blender cup CITATION Fat152 \l 2057 (Belyadi).
Next, each group was required to use the viscosimeter to measure the viscosity. The components of a viscosimeter include;
* A constant rotating rotor sleeve
* An internal bob
* A torsion spring that keeps the inner bob into position.
The mud cup was filled up to the upper limit with the mud sample. The mud cup was positioned under the sleeve such that it was dipped into the mud cup up to the 2nd line. The rotor sleeve’s velocity was set to (600 rpm, 300 rpm, 200 rpm, 100 rpm, 6 rpm, and 3 rpm, gel strength) to allow the stirring of the mud till a steady reading was possible. All the viscosity reading were recorded and used in the calculation of the plastic, and apparent viscosity and later the yield point. The previous steps were repeated for all the other samples. Finally, all the apparatus were cleaned and stored accordigly. Moreover, the data obtained was exchanged among the groups CITATION Fat152 \l 2057 (Belyadi).
Calculation of Density and Weight
NB: Phase 1 (a) was used in sample calculation.
Prediction of Mud Density
ρmud=%100 weight % clayρclay+ weight % waterρwater gmcc
ρmud=%100 0.022.65+ 0.981 =1.013 gmcc
γmud=ρmudρwater= 1.013 gmcc1 gmcc=1.013
Amount of clay
weight of clay=γmud-γwater1-γmudγclaygmcc of water
weight of clay=1.013-11-1.0132.65=0.02gmcc of water
weight of clay=0.02gmcc of water x 500 cc of water
weight of clay=10.204gm
Amount of Salt
weight gm=Conceration ppbx1gm350cc1ppb x500cc→1ppb=1gm350cc
weight=25 ppb x1gm350cc1ppb x500cc=35.710 gm of salt
Prediction of the initial density of mud
ρmud_initial=Weight of Clay+Weight of Salt+Weight of Water Weight of layClay density+ Weight SaltSalt density+Volume of Water
ρmud_initial=10.204 gm+35.714 gm+500 gm 10.204 gm2.65gmcc+ 35.714 gm2.15gmcc+500 cc
ρmud_initial=1.049 gm/cc
γmud_initial=ρmud_initialρwater=1.049 gm/cc1gmcc=1.049
Calculation of the Volume of fresh water
Vw=133 cc1.049-1.0131.013-1=367 cc
Data and Measurements
The following table (Table 1) indicates the desired sample concentrations that were prepared during the experiment
Table 1: Data Measurements
Table 2: Calculation of Viscosity
Calculations and Results
Calculation of Viscosity
NB: Phase 1 (a) was used in sample calculation.
Plastic Viscosity (μp)=θ600- θ300=5-4=1cp
Apparent Viscosity (μa)=θ6002=52= 2.5cp
Calculation of Yield Point
NB: Phase 1 (a) was used in sample calculation.
τy=θ300-μp=4-1=3 lbs100ft2
Graph 1: Plastic Viscosity against Weight of Aquagel
Plastic viscosity for the Aquagel was higher than that of Aquagel+salt. Dilution slightly lowered the Plastic Viscosity.
Graph 2: Apparent Viscosity against Weight of Aquagel
Apparent viscosity for the Aquagel was higher than that of Aquagel + salt. Dilution slightly lowered the Apparent Viscosity.
Graph 3: Yield Point against weight of Aquagel
Yield point for the Aquagel was higher than that of Aquagel+salt. Dilution slightly lowered the Yield point
Graph 4: Plastic Viscosity against Weight of Zeogel
Plastic viscosity for the Zeogel was lower than that of Zeogel+salt. Dilution slightly lowered the Plastic Viscosity.
Graph 5: Apparent Viscosity against Weight of Zeogel
The apparent viscosity for the Zeogel was higher than that of Zeogel+salt. Dilution slightly lowered the Apparent Viscosity.
Graph 6: Graph 3: Yield Point against weight of Zeogel
The Yield point for the Zeogel was higher than that of Zeogel + salt. Dilution slightly lowered the Yield point.
Considering Table 1 above, adding salt to both Aquagel and Zeogel resulted into an increase in the mud density. The dilution of the salt based mud samples using fresh water recovered the original density of the mud. Looking at Graph 1, 2, and 3 one can see that the addition of the salt resulted to the decrease in the viscosity as well as the yield point with the increase in amount of the Aquagel added. Similarly, considering Graph 4, 5, and 6, the addition of the salt resulted to the decrease in...
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