OPTIMIZATION OF SPECIFIC ELEMENTS WITHIN EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION
This research paper is about validation and optimization of dimensions, sizes, number, and details for the most commonly used vertical and horizontal bands for construction in NepalCITATION Wai15 \p 439 \l 1033 (Chen, 2015, p. 439). Through testing laboratory, the team will determine the amount of seismic force that these types of constructions can withstand. The part of this research is to fully determine the collaboration and combination of vertical and horizontal steel bars and provide clear recommendations for their use in cement block masonry, brick and block, and rubble stone masonry. The simulators for construction industries will be used for analysis the experiments to be done the laboratory. The three dimensions’ technology will simulate animations that will saw the corresponding shaking of the model and it can be forecasts about experience of the building in future. The simulator will show how each force member (shear, displacement, tension, compression and weight) will interact with acceleration during the earthquake. The following factors will be monitor assess the situation of the model when subject to vibrations of high magnitudes, like: Structural frequency which involves mass and stiffness, Content of the earthquake frequency, Earthquake amplitude, Earthquake duration, Ductility, Characteristics in damping, and Integrity of the structureCITATION Ivo14 \p 764 \l 1033 (Chorro, 2014, p. 764)
Field study research is successful and sound project. This through prior preparations
There is always a proper research conducted for every successful and vibrant report. This enable the researcher to achieve the goals of the project. There are some activities need to be done procedurally for this project.
* Site selection
Getting the site will give the research an opportunity to study analyze the data and the information available? The site chosen wisely gives a researcher ample time and it reduce unnecessary costs incurred during the research. For the case of this project site simulate and will be the laboratory to test modelsCITATION Hel12 \p 193 \l 1033 (Cruz, 2012, p. 193).
* Pre visit
It is good for the research to make a reconnaissance visit in order to get the prior knowledge of the site of research which includes familiarizing with are to understand the missing requirement. It will need the laboratory to visited more often for this research. This pre-visit will give the researcher information on safety, attire to be used, hazards and incident reporting measures on site and first aid participants to be present. Also emergency measures involving process of calling back.
* Practical set of objectives
The research is all about how built structures which can resist earth quakes. The focus will be s establish the objectives. it always advisable the project should objective oriented.
Planning is very important to attain the precious goals and objectives for the research in all its activities for it comes first due to the following benefits:
* It leads to faster and efficient a and efficient achieves for any research
* It gives futures forecasts
* It can minimize the cost of operation
* It gives assurance of work flow t incorrect at minimizes incorrect steps are desirable deviations
* It can promote efficiency of research
* It can facilitation the decision making process
* It helps for one to discard people, machinery money and materials for unnecessary events
* Plan being the core of research program will have an order of eventsCITATION Jon15 \p 201 \l 1033 (Erickson, 2015, p. 201).
* Draft a schedule
It is very important to draw a schedule whenever one wants spend time efficiently at work studies and leisure. The schedule gives the research ample time achieve objectives and goals efficiently, as it gives:
* Knowledge of what can be attained with time
* Provision of adequate time necessary tasks
* Restriction on more than what can be handled
* Excellent work balance attainments
Time is one of the resource which needs to be managed wisely. Scheduling helps one to understand can be achieve within the day, weeks, month and even a year. The Gantt chants are vital for any engineering project to be run well and to be finish with ease at the right timeCITATION Jon15 \p 62 \l 1033 (Erickson, 2015, p. 62).
* Calculation of the cost
The estimations of the project should be made which for research. The costs incurred major can be associated with travelling, printing, modeling, simulation, interviews and equipment. There are some projects which need a bigger team to run them. if the cost will not stall but a success to those who implement its well calculatedCITATION Sir17 \p 45 \l 1033 (Feilden, 2017, p. 45)
* Information collection
The information on earthquakes is found in t institution of learning such as universities and colleges. But also in the metrological and geology departments of the governments. Even the government of Australia has seismic research center which monitors the earthquakes. It has also the machinery for conducting experiments on the structure models. The information from department of building and construction helps the researcher to get vital information. It is also good to check journals on the different building technology to resist earthquakes. With the right to data the can get correct resultsCITATION Yoz15 \p 121 \l 1033 (Fujino, 2015, p. 121).
* Simulation of the project
Using the given parameters of the structure one can use a computer software to design the structures and the buildings. The software like AUTOCAD which is used by architects and engineer is very important for analysis because it has user friendly animation features in three-dimension technology. after one has designed a house or a structure, will simulated the animation features of different members of forces such as shear, tension, compression and displacement. During simulation the engineer can get a clue of how the structure will react ground shaking during the earthquake at resonance frequency is when structure is destroyed, therefore through the use of animations to create real life imagery and videos.
The simulators help the engineer to detect a problem the different levels of abstraction, to understand the behavior of the structure, his may help the engineer to understand the working of the structure.
* Prototype and feasibility test
The construction of a model is very important before areal project is initiated. The models are usually tested against horizontal, vertical and even diagonally working forces. The model of the structure can be designed with real feature of the project in mind, so that to ascertain effects of the earthquakes on the houses or structures. If the model can endure a certain force applied on it can also withstand an earthquake with the intensity.
The models are cheap to be made and are tested in the laboratories. This in turn can promote cost saving. The model when analyzed can give an insight whether structure can be damaged partially or completely in the event of the earthquake. From the model the engineers can know whether life can be lost or not during the earthquake. This technology has promoted forecasting of the earthquake resistant structures to avoid damage structures can be tested also against strong winds like the typhoons, so that to prevent loss of propertiesCITATION Bel11 \p 72 \l 1033 (García, 2011, p. 72).
Feasibility study in construction industry is simply the evaluation of a viability of the project. It is used to analyze the project about the success bottlenecks and how it can operate under the proposed set of assumptions. It also gives an opportunity to catalogue the available current resources for construction work and to approximate the need for extra resources. It evaluates success of the project and credibility of it. There five types of feasibility study, namely:
* Feasibility in technicality
This type of evaluation stresses available resource technical aspect of its research. It enables the research to determine whether has volume of technical resources to convert the ideas into a working. It can involve software, hardware and the technology applications.
* Economic feasibility
It includes the cost and project benefits analysis whether is a viable, if it can also be used as an investment. It can help the research make sound decisions about the project.
* Legal feasibility
It establishes the relationship between the project and the law enforcing agencies. It should be investigated whether project can either conflict the law or not. It important when the project does not conflict law.
* Operational feasibility
It involves evaluation and assess whether the project will be smoothly operated without hindrances, and it can be satisfaction.
* Schedule test
It ascertains whether the project will be available in the right time for completion. It very vital the project to be completed within stipulated timeCITATION Rob131 \p 675 \l 1033 (Reitherman, 2013, p. 675).
Damage during an earthquake is majorly caused by:
* Shaking strength which means the greater the shaking strength the greater the damage vice versa.
* Shaking length in amount of time will determine the level of damage whether minimal or e shaking maximum. If the shaking is in a short while it may not be detrimental to the structures and the buildings within a given locality.
* Type of soil: this will increase in soft, wet, thick soil ground surface can settle or slide
* Types of buildings the way it is constructed and designed can minimize earthquake damages.
* Resonant frequency when the building or a structure can result damages it is equal to the earth during the earthquake.
The earthquake resistant designing Methodology
There are some factors which are consider...