Colonial Authority (Other (Not Listed) Sample)
FINAL PROJECT The final project is designed to tie together many of the ideas, concepts, and skills you have acquired during the semester. You might choose to begin exploring this project from the very beginning of the quarter and then to work on it as you continue to learn about various aspects of cultural anthropology throughout the course. This project is our capstone and requires you to synthesize the information from our films, textbook, and Web exploration. I often have had students include pictures, photos, websites, and develop PowerPoint presentations. The final project is worth a total of 100 points. Your final project must be typewritten double-spaced, in 12 point font with 1 inch margins.. Option 2: Race This project is designed to help students understand race more fully from an anthropological perspective. The American Anthropological Association has designed a travelling exhibition called RACE. It can be found at: http://www.understandingrace.org/home.html. For the project, I want you to go to the website and click on “History”. In the History section, choose one “Government Timeline Article”, one “Society Timeline Article”, and one “Science Timeline Article”. Read each article and then find a related source on the internet (it can be a report on NPR or an article in Newsweek or located at a detailed Blog about the subject) that addresses the same incident in history. Write a one paragraph synopsis of each article – the one on the RACE website and the related article – be sure to include a complete reference of each – and then write a concluding paragraph discussing the two resources. In the end of the History section of your paper, you will have three articles from the RACE website reviewed, and three articles from other sources reviewed. Then proceed to the section titled “Human Variation”. Begin by taking the quiz offered as the last link on the page. Then choose three of the articles listed under “Human Variation”. These include: The Human Spectrum, Our Molecular Selves, Race and Human Variation, Only Skin Deep, and Health Connections. Read the article and then find a related article in another source just as you did above. Again, write a one-paragraph review of each article and then a concluding paragraph discussing your two resources. The next section I want you to explore is “Lived Experience”. Begin by taking the sports quiz. You should find this fascinating. Then participate in the other four options (not the blog) and write a summary paragraph for each one (including the sports quiz). Find three articles that address any of the issues of “Lived Experience” found on the RACE site. Turn in your paper with clear headings to distinguish the different sections of the race site that you explored. Conclude with a section discussing your experience of the site and explain your ideas of race prior to exploring the site and those after. Integrate what you learned from the site into our curriculum. That is, discuss the site from the perspective of this course. Include as many terms and concepts from our text, lectures, and class activities as possible. Discuss race from a social, cultural, biological, and historical perspective. Draw your own conclusions about some of the controversial questions asked in some parts of the project. Be SURE to include complete, correct references to the other articles that you read. These articles must be lengthy enough to prompt discussion. You may include a printed copy of each article at the end of your final paper.source..
“Colonial Authority” is an article on the RACE website under the ‘Government Timeline Article’. Colonial Authority focuses on the English settlement in Jamestown and slavery in the New World, Virginia. The first permanent English colony in North America was Virginia, and therefore, it became the birthplace of English settlers. Although the British established other colonies in various parts of America, the Virginia colony was more prosperous and influential. In the early 16th century, a ship first landed in Jamestown with the first blacks offered for sale. Although this was new, the decision to buy slaves began to radically transform the social and economic life. According to the article, Virginia colony was the first to establish stricter slave codes in 1676. These codes emerged to curb activities and movement of slaves, prohibit them from carrying firearms, and emphasized on social separation as the blacks were viewed as inferior. The colony is known to have been successful because settlers started growing and selling tobacco as well as using slaves to work in their large tobacco plantations. However, with the emerging slave codes, a harsh life of slavery for the African was inevitable.
“The Founding of Virginia” by Maren wood is a similar article that focuses on the history of Virginia Colony. According to Wood, the British discovered the New World in the competition with Spain in the exploration of treasure in the Northern part of America. Virginia favored the growth of a well distinguished tobacco, which was shipped to England and sold at high prices. Virginia began to prosper from the sale of cash crops, and the need for cheap labor increased. As a result, colonialists continued to transport more slaves to Virginia for labor, and established ruthless slave codes in order to control them. Wood points out that the codes ensured a separation of the white and the black race, and they enforced severe punishment for the black people, more than the white people.
‘Race and intelligence’
In academic and science research, the debate on the relationship between race and intelligence has been an ongoing debate for long. The Science Article title “Race and Intelligence” in the Race website enlightens readers on how scientists in the 19th century developed various methods of measuring intelligence in order to determine the connection with race. Scientists premised that intelligence can be measured using the IQ test, as it is in large part generic. From the results of their tests, they argue that black people tend to have a lower IQ than the white. However, the article claims that the tests are used to justify ethnic discrimination and racism. In fact, the application of the test was at some point used to influence the immigration policy in US by limiting immigrant from certain areas, and justifying the existence of racial segregation in schools.
A newspaper article by Jeremy Laurance titled “The controversy of intelligence theories” focuses on the controversy resulting from difference scientific claims on the relationship between race and intelligence. Laurance points out that dispute arose because some best-selling authors such as Charles Murray, continued to support the justification of racial discrimination, slavery and segregation because they believed that the IQ difference are generic. On the contrary, some evolutionary biologist criticizes those views, as they hold that the IQ test is biased, and it should not be used as an indicator of intelligence. A university professor agrees with this view by claiming that the data collected from the IQ test is inadequate.
The article “Resisting Slavery” in RACE website focuses on the history of slaves’ rebellion and revolt from the 17th century. Haiti records to have had a successful outcome of the slave revolt in 1791, as it profoundly affected both the blacks and whites in America. The mere idea of the slaves rising in rebellion and revolt frightened the white. The article adds that there was a different reaction of the slave revolts that appeared to the northern and southern. In the southern hemisphere, slave revolts erupted more often and with greater intensity than in the north. More so, the number of the black was growing day by day, and the threat of violence seemed very real to southern slave owners.
The article titled “Slavery, Resistance and Rebellion across Americas” also addressed slavery revolt from the 17th century. According to the article Haiti revolt remained to be the most outstanding and successful one. However, it is observed that a continued conflict between the whites and blacks gave slaves a superb opportunity for them to fight for their freedom. The increasing number of blacks and the seriousness of the revolt made the whites come into agreement on fleeing their slaves. More so, religion served as a more important factor from the slavery revolts. Some of the employers who were Christians held that it was their God given task to protect their slaves. However, it is true that fighting freed the blacks from the white s.
‘Only Skin Deep’
In most cases, skin color is the most abused of all the physical characteristics of the human mankind. However, the article supports the theory, where, evolutionary forces are said to determine skin color variations among populations in different geographical regions. This means that certain physical characteristics such as skin pigment or color are not fixed on racial characteristic, but rather on the adaptive traits to suit a particular climate or environment. For instance, dark skin is said to be adaptive under intense sunlight.
The article titled “Skin Whitening Science” explores Nina Jablonski’s theory of skin color and human adaptive traits. The theory is based on the evolution story many years ago where people moved to various geographical locations including hot, open environment, humid areas, and cold environments among others. In this case, the exposure to hot climate affected the skin color of the ancestors which caused it to become darker because it had been exposed to excess heat. Also, the skin had an increased number of sweat glands to allow perspiration. On the other hand, the light skinned people are known to evolve from the northern temperature weather that led to the loss of skin pigment. The light skinned people are not exposed to direct sunlight like those living in hot environments, and therefore, they gradually lose the skin pigment. Jablonski claims that these adaptive features are resultant from the adaptation of the skin pigment to the UV radiation.
In this article, RACE website establishes the health connection between genes, diseases and environmental factors. For many years, many people predicted health and the cause for diseases through race and skin color. However, health researchers emphasize on environmental factors as determinants of health such as age, environmental conditions, and sex. There is a population perception that Sickle cell and hypertension are diseases for the black people. The findings from the article suggest that these diseases are not determined by skin color but by geographic locations. The article argues that Sickle Cell is common in Africa, India, and Middle East because the geographic location is more prone to malaria. Also, hypertension is common among African-Americans than the whites, as it is correlated with the distress from racial discrimination resulting to stress. On the other hand, AMD is common in Europe and it may arise from a family history or poor lifestyle choice like smoking, fatty diet, and exposure to sunlight.
An article by Stefan Anitei (2007) examines how people from different races are viewed to be more prone to different diseases. Anitei begins by pointing out the common claims like Latin American are vulnerable to Diabetes, Afro-Caribbean to hypertension and Ashkenazim Jews vulnerability to Tau-Sachs diseases. To examine views and perceptions, the article analyses research findings of geneticist Richard Spielman and Cheung who used technology to understand gene variation, different trait qualities among various ethnic groups. The finding as presented in the article suggests that different races have different genetic makeup and genetic expression, and thus they are genetically prone to totally different diseases because of the level of disparities.
“Exploring our molecular selves”
This article explores the molecular part of a human being through the use of animated video images. The video and images provide an in-depth explanation of the basic genetic components. The article also gives a clear definition of cell, DNA, Chromosome, Gene, Base pairs, Locus, Allele with the aim to explore the molecular components. Thus, it gives the readers an in-depth understanding patterns and genetics of human variations. In addition, the overviews of these components support geneticist Jeffrey Long’s view that observable traits are in most cases associated with race and not genetic.
An article on the Daily mail website by HYPERLINK "/home/search.html?s=&authornamef=Nicola+Rowe" Nicola Rowe (2013) addressed the controversial issue of personal traits and genes. According to Rowe, traits are not generic, but they are determined by nature or environmental conditions. In fact Rowe argues that traits can be inherited through observation and not necessary through genetic inheritance. Findings from researchers as analyzed from the article suggest that foster parents have much influence on the personal traits of their children more than birth parents. In addition to other rese...
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