The Foundation of Modern Medical/Bioethics: Moral and Theoretical Frameworks (Reaction Paper Sample)
The position paper will locate and discuss a specific issue or case study involving ethical questions regarding patient consent, capacity or confidentiality. Students will be expected to provide a brief overview of the issue/case study and then present their own informed opinion on the topic. It will be expected that students will use both relevant course readings as well as two additional scholarly sources in the development of their argument in the paper. Your paper should be organized around a thesis, with a well-developed introduction and conclusion. Essays should be written in 12 pt font, double-spaced, with 1” margins. Your paper must have both a cover page and a separate bibliographic page that lists the sources used in the essay, and must conform to the guidelines set out for APA referencing, with respect to both in-text citations and a bibliographic reference page.
Sept. 18: The Foundation of Modern Medical/Bioethics: Moral and Theoretical Frameworks
Robert Baker and Laurence B. McCullough, “Medical Ethics' Appropriation of Moral Philosophy: The Case of the Sympathetic and the Unsympathetic Physician.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal Volume 17, Number 1 (March 2007): 3-22.
David Armstrong, “Embodiment and ethics: constructing medicine’s two bodies.” Sociology of Health & Illness Vol. 28 No. 6 (2006): 866– 881
Sept. 25: Patients and Health Care Providers
Group 1 Presentation
Andrew Carson-Stevens, et al., “Framing patient consent for student involvement
in pelvic examination: a dual model of autonomy.” Journal of Medical Ethics Vol. 39 (2013): 676-680.
Susan Sherwin, “Moral Perception and Global Visions,” Bioethics Volume 15 Number 3 (2001): 175-188.
Oct. 2: The Three ‘Cs’: Consent, Capacity and Confidentiality
Group 2 Presentation
Paul Weindling, “The origins of informed consent: the international scientific commission on
medical war crimes, and the Nuremberg Code,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine Volume 75, Number 1 (Spring 2001): pp. 37-7.
Madeleine J Murtagh and Julie Hepworth, “Feminist ethics and menopause: autonomy and decision-making in primary medical care.” Social Science & Medicine Volume 56, Issue 8 (April 2003): 1643–1652.
Catherine Frazee, Joan Gilmour, and Roxanne Mykitiuk, “Now You See Her, Now You Don’t: How Law Shapes Disabled Women’s Experiences of Exposure, Surveillance and Assessment in the Clinical Encounter.” Chapter 10 in Dianne Pothier and Richard Devlin, eds. Critical Disability Theory: Essays in Philosophy, Politics, Policy and Law (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006) [ebook available online through York Library’s website].source..
Over the last three decades, informed consent has been the focus of debates on ethically acceptable medical practice. Although informed consent may appear as a recent concept in medical practice, the issue originated after the Nuremberg Medical Trial, which saw to the ruling on criteria to carry out medical experiments. Historically, the use of human subjects in medical experiments was a criminal offence. Even after the proposal to use specific guidelines when conducting biomedical research, the judges failed to use the guidelines in reaching a verdict concerning the Nazi experiments (Paul, 2001).
In medical practice, healthcare providers perceive informed consent as necessary to justify actions, which could affect others, such as medical treatment, researches on human subjects and the use of human tissues in biomedical research. Although health care providers and investigators have provided arguments supporting informed consent, some of the arguments are unconvincing. Overall, informed consent is ethically important in todayâ€™s medical world because of the many and continuing medical advancements. Informed consent is not only present in medical practice, but also in education, including other fields where social relations have become more complex, less personal and displaced traditional approaches to trust (Madeleine, & Julie, 2003).
In the same context, institutions are finding informed consent as strategic, mainly because of the protection informed consent outlines in regards to, accusation, litigation and possible compensation awards. The concept of informed concept has raised various ethical issues, and such has undermined the ethical perspective of informed concept. This is because the ethical essence of informed consent, I perceive is elementary. In such a context, informed consent provides a patient, research subject or tissue donor with assurance that, the identified people have not been deceived. As such, it is another observation that, there should be detailed information concerning informed consent to avoid possible pitfalls in the future (Kinnersley et al., 2003).
Prior to conducting any medical activity, which involves human beings, the medical experts or professionals, must obtain informed consent from the humans (patient, tissue donor or research participant). Obtaining the conse...
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