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36 pages/≈19800 words
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Level:
APA
Subject:
Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Type:
Research Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Engineering 183EW: The Main Technological Advantage Of Dna Engineering (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

do an extensive research on:-DNA ENGINEERING.

source..
Content:
DNA ENGINEERING August 18th 2017 Engineering 183EW Table of Contents 0.Executive Summaries..................................................................................................................iv-vi 1.Introduction..............................................................................................................................vii-viii 1.1 Methodology................................................................................................................vii 1.2 Credits.........................................................................................................................viii 2. Problem Statement and Background.............................................................................................1-7 2.1 Problem Statement.........................................................................................................1 2.2 Background....................................................................................................................2 2.2.1 Past and Current Discoveries ........................................................................2 2.2.2 Future Prospects.............................................................................................4 2.2.3 Ethical Frameworks.......................................................................................7 3.Invasion of Privacy......................................................................................................................8-10 3.1 Technical Issues.............................................................................................................8 3.2 Ethical Issues.................................................................................................................9 3.3 Recommendations........................................................................................................10 4.Incurable Diseases.....................................................................................................................11-13 4.1 Technical Issues/Ethical Issues....................................................................................11 4.2 Recommendations........................................................................................................12 5.Eugenics and the Denial of Choice............................................................................................14-17 5.1 Technical Issues...........................................................................................................14 5.2 Ethical Issues...............................................................................................................16 5.3 Recommendations........................................................................................................17 6.Organ Cloning...........................................................................................................................18-21 6.1 Technical Issues...........................................................................................................18 6.2 Ethical Issues...............................................................................................................20 6.3 Recommendations........................................................................................................21 7.Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) .................................................................................22-29 7.1 Technical Issues...........................................................................................................22 7.2 Ethical Issues...............................................................................................................26 7.3 Recommendations........................................................................................................28 8.Overpopulation..........................................................................................................................30-33 8.1 Technical Issues...........................................................................................................30 8.2 Ethical Issues...............................................................................................................32 8.3 Recommendations........................................................................................................33 9.Recommended Solutions...........................................................................................................34-36 10.Conclusion.................................................................................................................................37-40 10.1 Conclusion.................................................................................................................37 10.2 Future Aspect.............................................................................................................38 11.References.................................................................................................................................41-45 0. Executive Summary DNA engineering, whether it be related to food and humans, has been a controversial topic in 21st century. Since the first identification of genes in the mid-1800s, scientists have come very far. DNA, known as deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of almost all known forms of life. Scientists have been able to map the DNA sequences of people as an indication of the individual.   Sequencing technology has been proven useful in many aspects. In this article, six subtopics will be discussed including genetically modified organisms (GMOs), invasion of privacy, incurable diseases, eugenics and denial of choice, cloning, and overpopulation. Gene modifications in the food industry led to better yields and pest resistance, but also raised the issues of safety and morality. Furthermore, gene editing could also be applied to humans. Individuals could spend a reasonable amount of money to sequence their genome to identify a potential disease. Research centers also collect DNA samples to do medical researches about inherent disease. However, with the outside access towards an individual’s biological information, the issue of the protection of privacy is raised. With modifying genomes inside of humans and food to treat inherent diseases and increase food yield, another problem arises: overpopulation. Since the typical limiting factor of population growth is resources, genetic technology would be a powerful tool to resolve the food and energy limitations. This report will have six sections including all six distinctive subtopics. Within each of these sections, technical issues, ethical issues, and possible recommendations will be discussed.   The main technological advantage of DNA engineering is that it could reveal the biological information of people. Scientists could not only identify genomic makeup, but they could also modify the sequence of genes which means they could change a certain individual’s biological identification, like a predisposition to a curable illness. A technical issue of DNA engineering in the food industry is that there may be possible health risks associated with GMOs. To improve yield of crops and other agricultural products, scientists inserted new genes into plants through bacterial plasmids to provide advantageous genetic traits. A plasmid is a small DNA molecule, which can carry foreign genes within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. The GMOs largely increased food yields and farmer profits, however, many suggest that GMOs have health risks including food allergies, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and farmer’s property rights. For humans, DNA engineering may yield to experimentation with and subsequent health risks associated with cloning. Scientists can clone organs using CRISPR by injecting human stem cells into pig embryos. However, it may result in genomic endogenous retroviruses which is a robust immune system barrier. The immune system of an individual may recognize the organ as foreign and would subsequently attack it.   As DNA engineering has the potential to cure diseases, extend one’s lifespan, and increase the yield of agricultural products through GMOs, overpopulation may start to become an issue. Overpopulation can result in water shortage, land shortage, decrease of quality of life and other environmental problems.   The ethical issues within the topic of DNA engineering is extensive. Economic controversy may occur when it comes to GMOs. Farmers may end up in a dilemma: either being forced to pay higher prices for the engineered seeds of crops because science corporations have the patent, or being uncompetitive in the market because they have less yield of products.   DNA engineering also raises the issue of privacy. In recent years, DNA has gone from an academic research activity to a governmental commercial enterprise. When DNA samples are taken, they are subsequently stored, allowing the chance of unauthorized access to an individual's personal information consisting of entirely who they are.  As a fetus’s genome is explored (without consent), the DNA testing may reveal potential incurable disease when sequenced. Individuals may go to the hospital to screen for a flu but end up finding out that he is predisposed to an incurable disease. Telling a patient of a future, incurable illness that they may or may not suffer through is a tricky ethical question. It may violate the moral autonomy of the ignorant patient, yet hearing the news may cause excessive anxiety, depression, and hopelessness to a patient. With the current ethical issues surrounding DNA engineering, four main recomme...
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