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Employee Motivation (Research Paper Sample)


Employee Motivation

Employee Motivation
Name/Class No
Annotated Bibliography: Employee Motivation
Employee motivation is a crucial element in the success of failure for any organization. Without motivated employees, morale, productivity, product and service delivery, and profits will be affected substantially. Due to the nature of the current environment, remaining competitive means a lot for the survival of organizations. In addition to other strategies, investing in strategies of motivating the workforce is one of the strategic techniques that most organizations are employing to maintain their competitiveness in the market. In most cases, factors motivating individuals and teams vary from one organization to another. Whereas other people are motivated by professional development opportunities, a sense of accomplishment, or flexible schedules, others are motivated by money. Thus, the key to attaining human resource advantage that could contribute to success in the competitive environment is to understand what factors motivate the workforce of the particular organization. The main focus of this paper is to survey, evaluate and summarize the relevant material available relating to employees motivation, both ‘moral motivation’ and ‘intrinsic and extrinsic motivation’.
Carolyn, W. (2007). What motivates employees according to over 40 years of motivation
surveys. Tennessee, USA: University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.
In her study, Carolyn focused on evaluating the various factors that motivates employees. According to her, the relationship between individuals and their work has attracted behavioral scientists and psychologists. The main interest of the psychologists is to evaluate abilities and aptitudes to improve job-person. However, lately motivation is an important segment of vocational and industrial psychology (Carolyn, 2005). She asserts that modern research on human motivation is based on three major assumptions. First, motivation is a permanent characteristic. It is a self-motivated internal state which is attributed to the impact of personal and situational factors. Secondly, motivation has an effect on behavior and not performance. Thirdly, motivation is deduced from a methodical evaluation of how individual, task, and environmental traits affect behavior and performance. In this article, the author has analyzed various factors that motivated employees in the past and compares them what is motivating them in current times. This article will be important on the research on employee motivation in highlighting some of the factors that could be helpful in motivating employees.
Rafik, I. and Ismail, A.Z.H. (2008). “Employee Motivation: a Malaysian perspective,”
International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 334-362
The main objective of this paper was to determine the factors that motivate employees working in different organizations in Malaysia. The researchers adopted a survey method of study in the study. The researchers gathered information from various respondents using survey questionnaires, which required the employees to rank the various factors that motivate them according to their effectiveness. The results indicated that various demographic factors such as education, race, and gender have a considerable impact on the ranking of the factors. Relevance of this study was to help managers, not only Malaysia but also in other parts of the globe, to come up with effective strategies in developing employee motivation programs (Rafik and Ismail, 2008). According to my opinion, the authors of this article did a wide study concerning factors that motivates employees. Like in the above article, this article will be crucial in providing information regarding factors that motivate employees.
David, J.H. (2009). The Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators: Examining
attitudes of government workers in North America and Western Europe. Indiana: Indiana University.
According to the author, people distinguished by high levels of public motivation tend to emphasize on intrinsic versus extrinsic work motivators. Besides, public service organizations are expected to have highly motivated workforce as compared to for-profit organization, because they have better chances of satisfying intrinsic motivational needs. Based on the findings of the study, the author concluded that employers, such as public service organizations value intrinsic work motivators more than they value extrinsic work motivators (David, 2009). However, job security, one of the extrinsic work motivators has more value like in the case of most intrinsic work motivators. This conclusion is in line with various other studies that have put indicated that intrinsic motivation is of more importance than extrinsic motivation, although extrinsic motivation can also have a considerable impact in employee motivation. The article will be important in my research specifically when analyzing the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on employee performance.
Abdolreza, Y.N. and Leila, S.F. (2011). “Designing the Work Motivation Model: Staff
employees of Iranian offshore Oil Company.” International Conference on Social Science and Humanity. Singapore: IACSIT Press
The authors took a study with an objective of establishing and analyzing motivational factors for staff employees of Iranian offshore Oil Company (IOOC). The study consisted of 400 participants from whom data was gathered from. Moreover, motivational factors were categorized into intrinsic and extrinsic. Some of the intrinsic factors that were examined include nature of work, prestige and rank, and success and development. On the other hand, some of the extrinsic factors that were considered include perceived justice, participation in decision making, work conditions, relationship with managers, and salary and rewards. From the results of the study, the researchers showed that there is some relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors (Abdolreza and Leila, 2011). However, contrary to the other studies that has been undertaken in regarding intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors, the researchers showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors are complimentary. This study is important because it not only points out the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors, but also how they affect each other when utilized at the same time. The article will important in my research particularly when it comes to analyzing the how programs of motivating employees are designed.
Matt, B. and Amy, E.C. (2011) “An Integration and Extension of Intrinsic Motivation
Theories: The Role of Core Affect, in Aparna Joshi, Hui Liao, Joseph J. Martocchio (ed.)” Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Volume 30), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.73-114
The authors of this article assert that, intrinsic motivation arises as a result of affirmative responses, which emerge from engaging in occupation actions. Moreover, intrinsic motivation is very crucial in an organization, especially when it comes to creativity, performance, and leadership. In this study, the authors examined previous studies on motivation, to offer a general idea and assimilation of principal theories. Additionally, the authors discuss on how affect cognitions may contribute to stronger and unrelenting intrinsic motivation experience. They concluded by suggesting the need for more research on this area. In my research, this article will be important particularly when examining hoe intrinsic and extrinsic motivation could be integrated in employee motivation programs.
Emily, R.L. (2011). Motivation: A Literature Review. Research Report. Pearson.
In this report, Emily describes motivation as the reasons that bring about behavior that is characterized by enthusiasm and preference. She also analyzed the two types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic. According to her, whereas intrinsic motivation is dynamic by personal pleasure, interest, or enjoyment, extrinsic motivation is controlled by underpinning incidents. She also argues that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence employees in different ways (Emily, 2011). This article will be very helpful in my research, specifically giving background information on motivation of employees.
Maxime. A.T., Celine, M.B., Sara, T., and Luc, G.P. (2009). “Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic
Motivation Scale: Its Value for Organizational Psychology Research.” Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 213-226.
The authors of this article assert that the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) is an 18-item gauge of work motivation theoretically based in the theory of self-determination. In this study, the authors were focusing on achieving two objectives. The first one was to evaluate how WEIMS is applicable in various work environments. The second objective was to assess the psychometric properties and factorial of WEIMS. The participants in this study involved 465 military personnel and 192 civilians. Based on three indexes of WEIMS, the researchers proved that the analysis supported its capability to forecast negative and positive criteria in the place of work. Besides, the overall results confirmed the applicability, and reliability and validity of the WEIMS in an organizational context (Maxime, 2009). From my point of view, this article crucial in my research, especially when analyzing how the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can be assessed.
Patrick, A.P. (2007). A research study of Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in supposition to
the self-directed workers in an industrial application. Illinois: ProQuest
The authors start by highlighting...
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