Mobile Satellite Telephony System Research Assignment (Research Paper Sample)
Research on Mobile Satellite Telephony System development with time.source..
Mobile Satellite Telephony System
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Mobile Satellite Telephony System
A satellite refers to any object which moves around a planet in a curved path referred to as an orbit. Planets can either be natural or artificial (man-made). An example of a natural satellite to the earth is the Moon while there are several artificial satellites revolving round the earth. The satellites move freely around their respective planets a motion which is explained using Newton's theories and equations which relate the force acting between the two objects (i.e. the planet and the satellite) to their respective gravitational forces, their masses and the radius between their centers. It is because of the attraction force between the two objects that keeps the satellite in circular motion around the planet (Maini & Agrawal, n.d.).
Several different man-made satellites move around the earth at different distances from the earth to perform different functions. Their movements are controlled and monitored depending in the various functions they are used for. Some satellites move around a single spot over the Earth's surface while others travel over the Earth covering several kilometers of its surface. Among other functions satellites are used to track hurricanes or predict weather by meteorologists, take pictures of planets used by scientists for study, while some are used for communication purposes (Maini & Agrawal, n.d.).
Satellites used for communication help in beaming phone and Television signals around the world. These satellites have developed over the centuries and have been categorized into different groups depending on the frequencies they use example is spectrum utilized, or depending on Multiple Access Methods an example is TDMA, FDMA, or CDMA, or depending on the Earth's orbits in which the satellites lie. The Earth's orbits are Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), Highly Eliptical Orbit (HEO), and Geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) (Maini & Agrawal, n.d.).
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites
LEO satellites revolve above the Earth at a height of about 500 to 1500. These satellites experience shorter periods of 95 to 120 minutes. The system is made up of several satellites to ensure global coverage. The use of LEO satellites has several advantages because of its low altitude, the delay time of the packets delivered is low, at approximately 10 ms hence provides faster communication. The low altitude also ensures low signal strength loss hence use of low power transmitters which are cheaper and less bulky. Because of the smaller footprints it has better frequency reuse and they high numbers of LEO satellites used provide a better global coverage including the Polar regions. Disadvantages experienced by LEO satellite systems is that for better communication and global coverage, many satellites must be used because of the smaller footprints. Also the system set up is complex and expensive because of the moving satellites and more switching required for long distance communications. In addition, gateway cost is very expensive compared to other satellites (Dev & Dev, 2017).
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites
These satellites are found at an altitude between 5000 km and 12000 above the Earth's surface and is between the LEO and GEO satellites. It has an orbital period of approximately 6 hours. MEO satellites have higher features compared to LEO satellites while has lower features compared to Geo satellites. Compared to LEO satellites, its construction requires few satellites for global coverage which is an advantage over LEO satellites. It requires high signal power because of its higher altit
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