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10 pages/≈2750 words
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APA
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Engineering
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Research Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Engines Research Assignment (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

Conduct literature research and search for future generation propulsion systems in the category "Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)Engines." While many technical issues/challenges could be included in the survey paper, topics in aerodynamics and thermodynamics in future generation propulsion systems are welcomed to be discussed and included.
- key features and benefits of the system
- technical challenges faced in them
- boundary layer injection and thermal management in the system
- other aerodynamic topics in propulsion systems
"No direct copy from sources allowed. Figures and images should be cited, as well as facts/figures, MLA style. Minimum of 5 pages (single spacing) is required."
Graded based on:
- format: clarity on concept expressions, overall logic and organization f the survey paper
- Contents: capture of the key issues and in-depth discussions
- References: Complete list of citations, minimum 3

source..
Content:

Solar Electric Propulsion
Name
Institution
Abstract
For decades, there has been an increased demand for the environmental safety of the earth worldwide. Therefore, the invention of energy resources that are clean and renewable create a significant amount of global attention. As a result, there has been a great pursuit of renewable energy resources such as wind energy, solar energy, thermal-electric energy, kinetic energy, and wave energy. For example, the most commonly used source of energy for daily living is the possibility the propulsion system. The propulsion system is used to combine renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and human power. For instance, some environmental hybrid boats use a cell system of hydrogen fuel. Consequently, the Hybrid Boat System also known as HEB has been developed to apply to a battery-powered ship through the Use of Solar Electric Propulsion also known as SEP. With the help, the SEP systems such as the hydrogen fuel cells and the solar systems, the Pursuit 2000 S2 boat of 18 ft-length was successfully converted to an entirely battery-powered boat. The Industrial technology Students implemented the conversion and storage system of the hybrid boat. Also, the merge between the project and the theoretical studies will significantly boost the project team with immense scientific knowledge (Wakefield, 1998). Even, an experimental research would bring a significant contribution to our design of HEB and the importance of SEP on a national level.
Keywords: SEP, HEB
Introduction
The rules and regulations of both the emission of air and water pollution in fresh waterways and lakes have been reinforced over the years. In consideration, through the removal of the internal combustion of the engine and replacing it with a modern day technology of Fuel will help reduce the possible use of gasoline. The hybrid boats will guarantee better efficiency, almost zero noise, and zero emissions. This model not only offers a workable substitute that delivers a compelling motorized navigation but also protects the drinking resources from freshwater lakes (Capadona, 2012). Therefore, this research paper will not only discuss the findings but also contribute to the development of electric boats by promoting the use of Solar Electric Propulsion in the light of impacting various environmental issues and also reduce on oil consumption. Also, the primary goal of the research is education training on students in the fields of technology and engineering applications of renewable energy.
Problem Statement
As a result of the recent demand for alternative systems of propulsion with an ability to bring an overall improvement and efficiency of both the small boats and the ships. Also, the newly demanded model should be able to reduce the footprints of carbon due to the unquenchable thirst in finding solutions for the grave problems in the shipping industry. The system also has it’s drawbacks just as all things have various consequences (Sarver-Verhey, 2002). However, the operation of the electric propulsion system is quite simple by the attachment of prime movers as characterized in the merchant ship.
Challenges
For several years now, the rate of consumption of polluting resources such as fossil fuels non-renewable has drastically grown causing a global concern. However, as a way to modify the use of batteries to a more efficient form of energy transportation and also to curb the alarming rate of gaseous pollution, the boat industry shifted production to hybrid electric vehicles (Capadona, 2012). The hybrid electric vehicles have fewer emission rates of greenhouse and are more efficient. To be precise, there has bee a large number of new educational institutions and industries that research and educate on electric or hybrid boat projects. For instance, Moritz Von Jacob was the first inventor of a 14 passenger, 24-foot 3mph electric boat in the year 1839 at St Petersburg in Russia (Sarver-Verhey, 2002). (Capadona, 2012). However, the development of the battery and motor took about 30 years before the installation of numbers.
SEP Hybrid Boat Concept
The invention of a hybrid boat was in response to the prolonged global issues. During the period of the research, the cost of transport had skyrocketed due to high costs of oil where it was sold at a price of about 130 US dollars. As the primary objective was the use of renewable and cleans energy resources to reduce pollution, the hybrid boat was developed as a future model of transportation powered by both sun and wind. However, the primary challenge was in the creation of a sailing vessel that is both eco-conscious and lightweight with an all-weather and high sailing performance navigation capacity with zero emission (Capadona, 2012). Also, one of the most vital requirements for the innovative technological exploration was the reduction of both hydrodynamic and aerodynamic resistance through the efficiency of the stability of energy.
An electric boat crossed over both sides of the English Channel with a record of 8 hours in 1886. The invention of the first Electric Boat company was in the US in the year 1899, but its original design of the submarine in 1900 was purchased by the United States of America Navy.Since then, the use of electric power has been limited to only power submarines underwater (Capadona, 2012). The subs have been powered by diesel while on the surface, Also in 1928 the US Navy invented the use of diesel-electric transmission. Later in 1952, the Electric Boat Company was made to be the General Dynamics Corporation. As a result, the excellent method of electric propulsion and combined fuel has been used by some modern liners (Wakefield, 1998). For instance, Queen Mary 2 was accustomed to electric motors which are powered by either gas turbine engines or diesel.
The main advantages of this models include the optional use of fuel engines. Also, the optimal control of speed regularly and even the mounting of an electric motor in a pod at a rotation of 360° to increase maneuverability. In 1968, Duffy, a firm in California began the production of small electric craft to eliminate the stagnation in boats powered by only electricity (Capadona, 2012). During the formation of the Electric Boat Association In the 1980's, the solar-powered ships were also produced.
Although a vast number of boats are currently powered by sail power also known as gasoline engines or diesel engines the use of electricity on a vessel is even feasible.
Since the dominance of the combustion engine in the 1920s, the popularity of the Electric boats since the 1880s ceased. The renewable and non- polluting sources of energy have steadily increased in demand since the 1970s energy crises (Wakefield, 1998).. The vast majority believe that the rejuvenation of the electric boats which will be of great benefit the current state of technological development.The use of electronic vessel can be of global interest in several ways such as improving the quality of air in the environment. Secondly, the reduction of the consumption of gas will prevent the high volumes of CO2 gases released into the atmosphere (Sarver-Verhey, 2002). Thirdly, the use of electric boats will help preserve the ozone layer as well as the environment.
The current market has shown continuously increase in high demand for small electric boats that use batteries due to the limited development of the technology of cells.
Also, the amount of energy density is not sufficient for larger sized boats and ships that depend on electricity. Hydrogen fuel cell is one of the reputable sources of power used on electric ships (Wakefield, 1998). According to research, since Hydrogen fuel cells are the most commonly used with zero emissions and with low cost and reduces the high dependency on oil, it might be considered as the next revolution in the industry of transportation. Essentially, electricity is made by compressing the hydrogen gas using a polymer electrolyte membrane with the use of by-products such as heat and water. Research shows that Hydrogen occupies 75% of the universe elemental mass (Wakefield, 1998). Therefore, hydrogen is known to be the most abundant chemical universally.
Although there are already examples of educational and commercial boats powered by hydrogen fuel cell, there is an increasing demand for more likely alternative resources of energy.Due to this fact, students of the coming generation will require a considerable curriculum support in precisely the areas of technology and engineering programs (Wakefield, 1998). The Industry of technology programs organized for workshops and meetings in order motivate the students into more involvement and interest in renewable energy technologies. Also, the studios increased the student's enthusiasm in of research of hybrid and electric vehicles. Students from different majors helped in the accomplishment of the project (Sarver-Verhey, 2002). The primary goal of the study was education training on students in the fields of technology and engineering applications of renewable energy. Therefore students from minor and majors areas such as Electronics, Computer science, Design and development, Industrial Technology and Construction Management took part in different phases of the project during the research project. All the students as mentioned above completed their roles successfully.
Engine Conversion to Electric Motor
In the spring of 2010, the Industrial Technology program was donated a Pursuit 2000 S2 boat of 18 ft-length with a gasoline engine V6 Evinrude. As a result of the Hurricane Ike, which occurred in the year 2008 at Louisiana and Texas, the V6 engine badly rusted and broke (Wakefield, 1998). Consequently, corrosion developed between the propeller section and the midsection of the exhaust because the propeller and trailer sections have been in the water ever since.
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