10 pages/≈2750 words
Literature & Language
Social Conflict Theory (Research Paper Sample)
in depth research paper on the social conflict theory of Convict Criminology to include the theories of Ian Ross and Stephen Richards written in APA format to include the referencessource..
Social Conflict Theory
Criminology is the study of nature, degree, control, and prevention of behavior that exist in individual and society (Sanders, Young & Burton, 2010). The fundamental criminology and it modern growth, which include feminist, critical, postmodernism, and peacemaking criminology all aims at restoring justice in the society. Further, through this they form perfect approach to ending inequality witnessed globally among the political and economical disadvantaged people. Similarly, convict criminology falls under the newly emerging studies in the field of criminology. It is defined as a body of scripting and rumination, which is more concerned on the issues connecting to criminology by convicted offenders and ex-inmates who bear academic credential. Sometimes, this field is regarded to as the ‘New School of Convict Criminology’. It started in 1990, in USA. However, globally, it is currently used by many countries in criminology as driven by social context aiming at developing conflict theory. However, not forgetting that this is bearing in mind the sophisticated nature of social certainty and the prevalence of inequality, which changes gears to conservative mode. In USA, millions of young, minorities, poor are held in close bar for minor convictions (Murphy et al, 2010). This has resulted to numerous policies, which have been proven futile. Nonetheless, Ian and Stephen experience lead to conviction of criminology theory. This research paper focuses on social conflict theory in line with convict criminology as alleged by Ian Ross and Stephen Richards in connection to society and criminal justice system.
SOCIAL CONFLICT THEORY OF CONVICT CRIMINOLOGY
The concept social conflict theory
To begin with, social conflict theory is a universal theory. It primarily focuses on numerous components of the society that affect people. It takes different shape that ranges from race, gender, power, social economic factors among many. However, the occurrence of such nature is conspicuous in a society that bears a wide gap, in terms of unequal distribution of power and resources. As such, this results to the strong powerful groups using the authority they posses for their personal gain thus exploiting the poor weak in the community. They execute this using two channels; the police authorized to provide security to everyone irrespective of his or her status and money matters. Further, the supreme group usually uses their authority to create rules that give them the larger share thus, victimizing marginalized counterpart. As such, oppression is the leading cause of conflict in the society. According to Marx, human account is covered by conflict, which results to the rich and stronger exploiting the poor and weak. It is believed that money is the root cause of conflict. For instance, in a private learning institution some bosses enquires for more from students and in turn give less to workers. This is just but a few cases in the world of business, where senior exploit junior with an aim of maximizing profit. Hence, social conflict theory explains that the society that is based on capitalism stands high possibility of intermingling in a destructive way. However, collective organization of affected society is the solution to this problem (HYPERLINK "http://0-search.proquest.com.alice.dvc.edu/pqrl/indexinglinkhandler/sng/au/Kitching,+Gavin/$N?accountid=38376" \o "Click to search for more items by this author"Kitching, 2000).
Social conflict theory of convict criminology
In USA, crime, murder, rape, violence, and illicit drug are some of the most crucial problems facing the country. This trend has seen numerous people confined behind bars. However, social conflict theory is employed in many cases as a way of connecting micro-social context to crime. The theory holds that there are numerous people situated in low-income social class, disarranged neighborhoods, low-income families, and moderately politically powerless places. Moreover, in USA, there are numerous people lying in either of this category of many. These result from population growth and high levels of migration. Further, the scarcity in well paying jobs has rendered many people unemployed. Moreover, due to this trend, many people disregard education for manual work. Hence, become uneducated lot that is subjected to poverty. This forces people in this area to search for alternative ways of meeting there end meat.
The likely hood of engaging in crime, violence, and drug in a community that is disarranged is high and politically marginalized is high. Further, lack of suitable community identity and presence of numerous unfinished buildings in a society is the root cause of crime reason and area respectively. This is an indication of undefined political influence to clean up the area. Further, security men and women in such area could be sleeping on their job. Hence, putting an offender facing such situation is not a permanent solution. As such, this call for key developments, upgrade residents of disorganized neighborhoods, and understanding the existing feeling of hopelessness. On the other hand, researches have shown that drug use is a leading catalyst that fuel crime. Moreover, it is clear to many that the struggle for area to sell drug and related conflicts in drugs results to clash that fuels crime. Moreover, some of them do so for influential reasons. However, despite the cause of drug use, most people develop a tendency of addiction. In case of such conviction, the best option introduces a model that analysis individual consumption of drug using social control factors. All the aforementioned factors indicate why crime is high is marginalized area that calls for more actions other than imprisonment (HYPERLINK "http://0-search.proquest.com.alice.dvc.edu/pqrl/indexinglinkhandler/sng/au/Lo,+Celia+C/$N?accountid=38376" \o "Click to search for more items by this author"Lo, 2003).
In most countries, social conflict exhibit in terms of racism. This is defined as actions, beliefs, social as well as political system based in a way that perceive human in term of race. This concept is characterized by characteristic, abilities, qualities, and belief, which defines whether a certain race falls under either superior or inferior group in the society. Further, this defines how members of different tribes may be treated. Picture this; the word crime is not used to mean worst actions committed resulting to suffering of other. However, in America, it is term reserved for risky actions committed by the poor black. For instance, murder translates to a murderer while accident and calamity means work of an unfriendly power. Similarly, in 1995, sentencing strongly affected younger black American. Most prisons registered a higher number of black compared to white. This was a show of how the government underrated black family. Further, during this era, it was hard for black Americans to secure education and job. Moreover, the unlucky ones who most of them were convicted men did not get a chance to exercise their right to vote. Generally, this had a huge political impact on the community ability to apply their democratic right, thus rendering them political powerless. Nonetheless, despite differences in the society, most functions involving communal development calls for unity. This means bringing people together in unity for success. The so-called unusual rich-strong go against rules of conduct that the other members of the society regard with a lot of respect. However, whenever the community comes together to articulate their anger against a black offender, they develop stronger bond of cohesion than ever before (HYPERLINK "http://0-search.proquest.com.alice.dvc.edu/pqrl/indexinglinkhandler/sng/au/Lo,+Celia+C/$N?accountid=38376" \o "Click to search for more items by this author"Lo, 2003).
Example of conflict theory in crime perspective
‘The rich get richer and the poor get prison’ is a tremendous example of conflict theory in convicted criminology. In his book, Reiman explains that poverty is the root cause of crime. Through at the individual level and government may fail to comprehend on the connection between the two, we are doing nothing to eradicate this fact. Instead, the criminal system is locking as many youth behind bars. Conflict theorist claims that crime and laws that define it forms the struggle for power. The few powerful groups have their way on legislative process hence doing away with behavior that threatens their interest. This idea suppresses the many young people with no job, no money to join college, cannot secure business loan as well as permit. For instance, law against encroaching is designed purposely for the poor. It is witnesses several times that a similar case relating to two different people by virtual of social class is ruled differently with the rich getting fair judgment. For instance, an ordinarily civilian found guilty of stealing animal risk high chances of jail term compared to a prominent politician bearing a land grabbing case. Further, courtesy of conflict theory, Remains analyses that class, and ethnic exploitation is the major cause of the rising number of crime. Moreover, this results to lack of opportunity, improve economic status and many more. Generally, such occurrences draws us to corrupt judicial system that fails to implement the rule of law without fear or favor. If only inequality and exploitation are eliminated then fairness and justice is easily acquired (Reiman, 1996).
IAN ROSS AND STEPHEN RICHARDS THEORY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Richard and Stephen had a strong feeling that US needed to be respect research conducted and recommended policies concerning correction crisis. As such, they introduced ‘convicted criminology’ accompanied by theoretical and historical blueprint. Richard is an ex-convict bea...
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