19 pages/≈5225 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
How many antibiotics are prescribed in the emergency room? (Research Paper Sample)
How many antibiotics are prescribed in the emergency room? the attached sample examines the scope of antibiotics and provides the scope of which type of antibiotics are to be use in the ERsource..
Within the clinical environment diverse side effects have been identified as being associated with either direct usage or overuse of antibiotics. This happenstance is more collated with the proliferation of C.difficile a pathogen allied to colitis infection as well as antibiotic associated diarrhea. Despite that these issues are prevalent within the emergency unit settings in our hospitals, it would be instrumental to assert that there are some measures which have been identified to contain the abuse and overuse of antibiotics; some of the most recent is the use of probiotics which is a new approach of managing antibiotics as well as increasing the patients overall immunity.
How many antibiotics are prescribed in the emergency room?
Antibiotics happen to be among the widely prescribed medications all over the world. The significance of prescribing antibiotics cannot be ignored. Due to diverse medical issues that are evident within emergency rooms various antibiotic classes are used. These classes differ in prescription even the way they are ingested in the patient’s body. Likewise the prescription is determined by various factors which could either be correlated or not. It ought to be noted that these antibiotics are dispensed in a way that they provide the utmost therapeutic reaction. In this way numerous side effects are reduced, note that antibiotic side effects could adversely affect the patient’s drug tolerance capability. The basic usage of antibiotics is to eradicate or kill diverse bacterial infections. However, antibiotics are not effective in fighting viral infections, such as flue or cold including fungal infections such as ringworms as well as vaginal yeasts infections. Nevertheless, the antibiotic classes which are widely used include but not least to; Penicillins which has such class members as penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin,amoxicillin-clavulanate, nafcillin, oxacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam,; Carbapenems with correlated class which include meropenem, doripenem, ertapenem, as well as imipenem-cilastatin; Lincosamide associated members include clindamycin, and lincomycin; Cephalosporins is also used and has such members as cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefaclor, ceftibuten, cefixime, cefdinir, and ceftriaxone. These antibiotics are regularly prescribed within emergency rooms as a measure to treat and control numerous infections generated by bacteria (van Nood,et al,2012). In essence, such infections may range from tuberculosis, meningitis as well as streptococcal infection of wounds. The reason these antibiotics are commonly prescribed and over used can be etched to the fact that they have a wider propensity to target such minute microorganisms as fungi, parasites as well as bacteria. Within the emergency rooms antibiotics which are classified as bactericidal are widely prescribed since they are known to kill bacteria, this kind of antibiotic works by interfering with the basic construction of the bacterium’s cell membrane or more its cell content. The other form of antibiotic entails the use of bacteriostatic; this is widely employed to thwart any bacterial multiplication (McFarland,1998). Due to the emerging challenges presented by growing need to use antibiotics, as noted in the US, broad spectrum antibiotics have become the most widely prescribed within the emergency room settings. The approach is correlated to the wider aspect of controlling the proliferation of drug resistant bacterial strains. Others forms of antibiotics prescribed entail narrow spectrum which are just effective against just a few classes of bacteria. Likewise, there are antibiotics such as Sulfonamides which has such type of allied components as trimethoprin-sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and erythromycin-sulfisoxazole, typically prescribed since they have a strong capability to work against anaerobic bacteria. Examining the nature of antibiotic classes prescribed in all emergency room settings, it is evident that the drugs exist in tow broader categories, aerobic antibacterial as well as anaerobic antibiotics. All in all, these antibiotics are either given before hand or after as to prevent infections and this are more widespread before any surgical operations. In essence, antibiotics are prescribed to deal with mild to severe a bacterial infection that is why the very nature of prescription requires thorough understanding of the patient’s condition before any prescription is approved.
The adverse outcomes from taking antibiotics
Within the emergency room antibiotic prescription, diverse studies have shown that the usage of antibiotics in one way or the other has adverse effects if not adequately followed or where the patient misuses the prescribed antibiotic. The principal outcome of taking antibiotics have been identified as development of ant resistant bacteria strains such as clostridium difficile particularly in inpatient patients within the emergency units. Hence, antibiotic effects have been observed to range from mild to severe as well as debilitating adverse consequences. Nevertheless, antibiotic side effects as noted among patients are exceedingly variable in regard to patient to patient and this is as well replicated from antibiotic to antibiotic. Howver, there are numerous side effects which may be as a result of each antibiotic class;
Antibiotic ClassClass MembersCommon Side EffectsClinical CommentsCarbapenemsertapenem, doripenem, meropenem, imipenem-cilastatinnausea/vomiting, diarrhea, headache, rash, eosinophilia (elevated white blood cells) as well as liver toxicity,Hypersensitivity reactions reported with meropenem, imipenem in patients with penicillin allergyPenicillinsNafcillin, penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, oxacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam,rash, abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea, drug fever, hypersensitivity reactionsif bloody stools, fever occur and this may include anaphylaxis, severe skin reaction, contact health care provider without delay; ampicillin may well cause pseudo membranous colitisTetracyclinesMinocycline, tetracycline, and doxycyclineabdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, liver toxicity as well as tooth discoloration in childrenwear protective clothing, use sunscreen as well as Avoid protracted sunlight contactMacrolidesClarithromycin, erythromycin and azithromycintaste alterations, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal pain.do not crush, break, chew, open enteric-coated or delayed-release pill; high speed of gastrointestinal side effectsQuinolonesofloxacin (Floxin), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), (Levaquin), levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin (Avelox),insomnia, headache, nausea and vomiting, lethargy, photosensitivity (which can at tines be severe)Avoid lengthened sunlight contact; use sunscreen, wear protecting clothing; moxifloxacin connected with advanced rates of side effects such as tendon rupture (rare) more widespread in age > 60+, with corticosteroid use, in kidney, heart, lung transplant recipientsDespite the above mentioned side effects, studies have shown that majority of these bacteria flourish on sugar, and other effects may entail feeling sick as well as having fungal infections touching on mouth, vagina as well as digestive tract. However, some of the side effects are classified as rare and include:
Development of kidney stones (especially when using sulphonamides).
Anomalous blood clotting (more obvious when under cephalosporin’s).
Sensitivity to sun (if on tetracyclines medication).
Blood disarrays (when taking trimethoprim).
Deafness (evident when taking erythromycin as well as the amino glycosides).
A number of patients, in particular elderly ones, may experience irritated bowels (a type of colitis) which can lead to relentless diarrhea. On the other hand, Clindamycin, which is an antibiotic widely used for the mainly severe infections, generally has as well these side effects. Nevertheless, although much less widespread, penicillin’s, erythromycin as well as cephalosporin may do too (Louie and Miller, 2011). Diverse studies have established that antibiotics can as well interfere with other forms of treatment, and is thus advisable not to combine antibiotics with other kind of drugs since they may severely undermine the efficacy of any other medicine. It is thus important to understand that they have other severe effects which could lead to long-term healthy issues to the users. If a patient is experiencing an incommodious or grave antibiotic side effect, they ought to contact their health care giver. The results may consist of staying on the similar antibiotic in addition to managing the identified side effect, regulating the dose, or more changing to a dissimilar antibiotic. As a rule, antibiotic management should not be closed without a health care giver’s authorization (Dendukuri and Brophy,2007). Discontinuing the antibiotic could let the infection to exacerbate and this may lead to increased antibiotic resistance. Even where the infections tend to appear to have been wiped prior to all of the prescription is gone; the complete course of antibiotic management must always be finished except told otherwise by a physician. An antibiotic hypersensitivity or sensitivity reaction can take place with any preparation, furthermore allergic reactions are one of the most widespread antibiotic side effects steering patients to emergency room admittance. Health care providers must at all times be informed of every preceding allergic effect to any prescription, including antibiotics. It would be as well essential to note that even placid allergic effects may just outcome with a skin rash. Likewise, additional relentless allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, can as well lead to shortness of breath, including wheezing, hives, in addition to swelli...
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