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Topic:

Topical Antioxidants; Retinol and Ascorbic Acid (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

Explain how Topical antioxidants function and the effectiveness of the L-ascorbic and retinol topical antioxidants.

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Content:


Topical Antioxidants; Retinol and Ascorbic Acid
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Abstract
Skin aging is a biological process that occurs as a result of deterioration of the physiological mechanisms that are aimed at keeping the skin young and rejuvenated. Therefore, in the skin ageing process, antioxidants act as an antidote to the process through quenching the free radicals skin formation. In their functioning, the antioxidants have a natural, safe, and significant effect on the skin. In order to maintain skin and slow the aging process, antioxidants are used as topical applications in forms of retinol and ascorbic acid. A study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of the L-ascorbic and retinol topical antioxidants. The experiment was conducted on 63 participants all students studying unit CDNDFC02 Cosmeceutical Science on campus. The age group of the participants varied from 18 years to 50 years old. The experiment took a period of 6 weeks after which the data was collected from the participants. From the results collected, the antioxidants presented varying results which did not show their effectiveness in the key areas of skin pigmentation and fine lines. The study had so many variables that could affect the results and the results are not representative of the effectiveness of the antioxidants.
Introduction
Skin aging is a biological process that occurs as a result of deterioration of the physiological mechanisms that are aimed at keeping the skin young and rejuvenated. The skin ageing process is continuous and involves several factors that reduce the organic functions both at molecular and cellular levels. Some of the common signs in skin ageing include fine lines and wrinkles, skin pigmentation alteration, and thin skin appearance (Salavkar, Tamanekar, & Athawale, 2011). Therefore, in the skin ageing process, antioxidants act as an antidote to the process through quenching the free radicals skin formation. In their functioning, the antioxidants have a natural, safe, and significant effect on the skin. This has led to the growing interest of studies that investigate the effects of antioxidants and how they can be replicated as a product (Poljsak, Dahmane, & Godic, 2013). Antioxidants therefore, provide protection to the cell membranes and prevent the oxidative stress on the body tissues by neutralizing the free radicals and the toxic oxygen molecules. The elastin and collagen are the important elements that are used in keeping the skin tight and looking fresh; however, as people grow older, the production of collagen and elastin are slowed which leads to sagging and wrinkling of skin. In order to maintain skin and slow the aging process, antioxidants are used as topical applications in forms of retinol and ascorbic acid (Salavkar, Tamanekar, & Athawale, 2011).
Retinols are among the most used topical antioxidants in the prevention of skin ageing as cosmetic products. One of the naturally occurring skin antioxidant is Vitamin A. In its biological occurrence, Vitamin A is in the form of all-trans retinoic acid. The functions of retinoic acids in the skin include keratinization, peeling, and epidermal proliferation. It is also involved in the modification of fibroblastic proliferation, keratin synthesis, and collagen metabolism. Therefore, retinoic acid is extensively used both for improving the ageing skin and as a topical therapy for several skin diseases. Topical retinoic acids have been known to induce skin irritation thus precluding its use in other types of skin diseases that respond to systemic retinoid (Sorg, Antille, Kaya, & Saurat, 2006). The use of retinols in improving the condition of skin has been studied extensively with researchers investigating its effectiveness and side effects. It has received much attention based on its extensive use among many people.
The use of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant is based on its properties that enhance the quality of the skin. The L-ascorbic acid which is also known as Vitamin C is a sugar like, highly water soluble, low molecular weight ketolactone (Telang, 2013). It has been determined as an effective anti-wrinkle treatment by working as both an antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. In its functioning, the Vitamin C improves the elasticity of the skin by enhancing the production of collagen. It is also known to stimulate the skin in producing collagen while it reduces the actin of collagenase. The topical application of vitamin C is delivered to the epidermal layer as either a cream or serum applied on the skin. Several efforts have been placed in the development of ascorbic acid derivatives for the primary purpose of topical application due to their known skin functions (Pullar, Carr, & Vissers, 2017). Despite the challenges faced in their development, topic applications of ascorbic acids are available to be used as an antioxidant.
The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the effectiveness of retinols and ascorbic acids as topical antioxidants in skin improvement experiment.
Methods
The experiment was conducted on 63 participants myself included all students studying unit CDNDFC02 Cosmeceutical Science on campus. The participants were all from a non-randomized group which was made up of females apart from one male who was studying Unit 2.4 Cosmeceutical Science. The age group of the participants varied from 18 years to 50 years old. The experiment took a period of 6 weeks after which the data was collected from the participants.
In the conducting of the trial, all participants were informed of the study and they all agreed to take part which was their informed consent. The participants were prepared for the application of the antioxidant; retinols and ascorbic acid specifically. The application of the topical antioxidants was done on each participant following the same procedure. Before the application of the antioxidants, the participant’s skin was thoroughly cleansed. After cleansing, the retinol was applied on the left side of the face both am and pm. On the right side of the face, L-ascorbic acid was applied both am and pm. After the application, the participants were asked not to use any products with active ingredients so as to minimize the confounding variables. A questionnaire was provided to the participants in which they were to fill after the study and indicate the results of both the topical antioxidants used and rate them accordingly. After the study was completed, the results were collated from the participant’s questionnaire and provided in a table form.
Results
The topical antioxidants were being investigated on their effectiveness and their side-effects and being compared against each other. The results from the questionnaires were presented in the table below indicating those for L-Ascorbic Acid.
Table 1: Results for L-Ascorbic acid
In the product texture and consistency, 4% indicated it was too heavy, 50% indicated it was comfortable, while 43% indicated that it was too light. This was meant to measure how the antioxidants felt on the skin when applied. Majority cited that it was ‘okay’. On the pigmentation effects 31.74% indicated no effect, 61.9% indicated a slight improvement with 4.76% indicating a significant improvement. This indicated that the antioxidant did not have much effect on skin pigmentation. In determining its effect on fine lines, 65% of participants indicated no change, with 31% indicating a slight improvement and only 1 participant indicating significant improvement. In identifying the side effects of erythema, 90% did not record any, with mild cases in 6% with severe cases in 4% of participants.
In the results of retinol acid, the perceptions of its effectiveness and side-effects were recorded in the table below.
Table 2: Results for Retinol
In the perception of its product texture, 77% indicated it was comfortable with 14%% reporting too light and 7% reporting too heavy. On the effects of pigmentation, 75% indicated no change, with 25% reporting slight improvement. No cases of significant improvement. On its effect on fine lines, 67% reported no change, with 27% indicating slight change as 5% reported significant improvement. On the side effects of erythema, 72% did not report any cases, 15% reported mild cases and 11% reported severe cases.
Discussion
Antioxidants have been widely used in the cosmetic industry cited for

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