6 pages/≈1650 words
Hostry of American Policy (Research Paper Sample)
unfortunately , I need to rewrite for this paper because the instructor pointed out that the Suicide problem should included the policy just for the state of Indiana not for US in general ,also the instructor wants to talk about how medical care intervenes with this issue .For example those who tried physical suicide ended to hospital ? does the workers there obligated to report to the police? how is this being effective to decrease this problem?. Furthermore, does the age below 18 or above make different for the person who committed suicide?... and what the school advocacy can help to cover the problem in Indiana state , Note: I need to write about how the policy in Indiana for this certain issue?? , you can relate that to many things like school , police , medical care , laws in indiana -The scholarly work will analyze the nature and history of the problem, the history of U.S and indiana state in specific. policies to address the problem, the value base of the policy solutions in indiana, and the political, economic and social contexts of the policies. Finally, you will conclude the paper by analyzing the strengths and limitations of America's policies regarding the social problem you selected. What, if any changes are needed and what role might today's social reformers play as change agents? -This assignment will require APA format (6th edition), double spacing, and Times New Roman 12-point font. Please remember that APA format applies to both the Title Page and Reference Page. Additionally, major headings and sub-headings should follow APA, 6th edition format. source..
History of Indiana Policy Name Institution History of Indiana Policy Introduction Assisted suicide is an act in which a person helps someone willingly to bring about the death of that person. It can imply offering a way to end an individual life, but could extend to the other activities. Assisted suicides differ from euthanasia whereby someone else terminates the life. The present wave of international public discussion has been in progress for decades, focusing on lawful, spiritual, and ethical outset of suicide, as well as an individual right to death. This practice could be permissible, prohibited, or based on the traditions and jurisdiction. Assisted suicide is a topic that has become a debate in Indiana. Despite efforts to restrict the right to die, many bodies, and organizations support this fact tremendously. The topic is still coming up during legal and political arenas within Indiana. “Despite numerous amicus curiae briefs proffered by various health care organizations (including: one by the Washington Psychological Association), the Indiana Psychological Association did not take an official position on this important issue” (Dowbiggin, 2003). Physician-assisted suicide has been disputed throughout history. Sometimes it was approved because it was a way of reducing suffering for terminally sick people, and at times, it was discouraged because it violated human rights to life. Eventually, many physicians accepted it and proposed legislation for it, that was rejected. This paper discusses social and cultural opinions about policies in Indiana and the US that address the problem, as well as the strengths and weakness of America’s policies regarding physician-assisted suicide. A brief History Suicide in Indiana Suicide was the second major cause of death among youths between the ages of 15 to 34 in Indiana in the period 2006-2010. It was also the third major cause of death among adolescents of 10 to 14 ages (Thomas & Kirk, 2007). Overall, suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death in the state of Indiana. Whenever a person committed suicide, it left a legacy of unbearable hurt, and guilt among family members and communities. Every year, such cases of suicide have increased in Indiana. People commit suicide because of depression or substance abuse and the most common methods include poisoning and firearms (Thomas & Kirk, 2007). Plato and Socrates considered suffering due to painful disease as an adequate reason for discontinuing life by committing suicide (Timothy, 2008). However, Aristotle argued that suicide was against the law and the state, hence, must be discouraged. Yet, in some towns and cities of Greece, suicide was acceptable. In fact, magistrates kept poison for those who wished to die. Perhaps it was the Hippocratic Oath that prevented physicians from giving any drug that could cause death that influenced the social issue of suicide. Intolerance to the issue continued throughout the ages but around the nineteenth century, interests began to develop among serious physicians and scientists in Europe and the US. Books were written about physician-assisted suicide, as well as legislation drafts were proposed. Through the nineteenth century to the twentieth century, physicians spoke openly about the possibility of suicide. After the Second World War, initiatives to legalize suicide in the UN charter were strongly supported. Opposition became stronger, especially from religious sides, as Christians considered it as a sin against God. From 1960, two developments influenced the conflict remarkably. First, there was a revolution or explosion of advancements in medicine. Major discoveries and inventions come into being, reducing the impact of diseases and prolonging life. Hence, death was discouraged. Second, the attitude of patients changed, along the way they began to suggest to suicide themselves since they perceived death as unavoidable and everyone must ultimately die. According to them, there was no need to prolong life in suffering (Keown, 2002). To this date, physician-assisted suicide has been legalized in Netherlands alone. Otherwise, it remains a crime in all other countries. Efforts continue to be made to legalize physicist-assisted suicide through public vote or legislative actions. The courts and juries play very crucial roles in assisting the progress towards acceptance of this issue. For instance, in Washington, a judge suggested that restriction of physician-assisted suicide is against the constitution since it limits the rights of individuals to die according to their wishes. This utterance will certainly be taken to court. On the other hand, the Roman Catholics have launched campaigns against legalization of the issue, while Protestants have accepted it as a means of shortening suffering. Some medical practitioners support the Roman Catholics claiming that there is no need for legalizing physician-assisted suicide since there are various ways of dealing with pain (Jim, 2005). Suicide in Schools In the meantime, every school will experience at least 1 out of 5 students commit suicide every year. In addition, at least 35 to 60 students will attempt suicide each year. The major reasons for this high rate of suicide are depression and drug abuse. Consequently, schools have developed policies to deal with this problem (Hanks, 2004). Each school in Indiana is expected to implement the following policies in order to prevent suicide among students. First, the school is to support counselling and related services to families, individuals, and groups. Second, the school is to make crucial information about the crisis to students, parents and its entire community, available and train its personnel on counselling and supervison, and increases awareness of the hazards of drug and substance abuse. Third, the school is to provide an avenue for discussing the policies towards reducing suicide with students (Thomas & Kirk, 2007). Additionally, suicide is supposed to be reported to the relevant authorities. This entails reporting threats, embarrassment, violence, oppression, and any form of suicidal attempt. The report assists in imposing a punishment against offenders. The schools shall also adopt various measures, programs, and assessment techniques to handle cases of suicide (Thomas & Kirk, 2007). Policies governing the Problem in Indiana Physician-assisted suicide remains a crime in Indiana. However, if after considerably looking into all aspects of the case at hand, a physician may shorten the life of a patient who is terminally ill and is in the process of dying. This rule was adopted from Court rulings in 1981 for non-crime dying aid. The regulations have been confirmed in court decisions and include the following policies. First, the patient must be suffering from an incurable disease which is associated with severe pain and suffering. As a result, the patient must also understand the situation. Second, the physician must ensure that the patient is not requesting for the dying aid out of inadequate pain control. Third, the patient must voluntarily, repeatedly, and clearly request to die. Fourth, the physician must have assessed the situation to ensure the patient’s decision is not distorted. Fifth, the carrying out of the physician-assisted suicide must be in a good relationship between the patient and the doctor. A doctor should not be under any pressure to perform the act that may seem unethical to them (Smith, 2007). Sixth, several physicians must be consulted to ensure the request is sincere. Seventh, all the procedures in executing a physician-assisted suicide must be documented. Finally, after a successful aid suicide, the concerned physicist does not declare a natural death. Instead, he or she reports to the local medical practitioner by use of a questionnaire who, in turns, reports to the district attorney general. The district attorney makes a decision as to whether the physician is to be prosecuted or not. If the physician followed the above policies, prosecution will not take place (Lewis, 2007). Assisted suicide policies all over the globe are obvious in some states, but uncertain in other countries. Simply because a nation does not have definite criminal policy on this particular act, does not denote that all those who assist will go without charge. It is a difficult situation. A number of persons impulsively believe that assisted suicide is such personal act of freedom and free will; they presume that there are no lawful bans. This misleading notion has caused troubles to many people. Although suicide is not an offence anymore, and wherever it is, is due to an inability to revise the rule, help remains an offence nearly in all places by some decree. The effect of medical and scientific findings in modern times has revolutionized the nature of the discussion on suicide (Jim, 2005). The escalating aptitude of doctors to treat human disorders, as well as to lengthen life, causes the nation to encompass a more direct attention in questions concerning death and life in the medicinal framework. Firm observance to spiritual values and teachings was convoluted by the improvements of science and medication. Matters such as medically aided suicide and termination of cure that characterizes a number of modern discussion, have their heredity in this era. At the start of the nineteenth century, the therapeutic occupation was engaged in a fair debate on, where theorists and theologians connect. A number of discussions focused on the matter of superiority of life and also on the right to establish when this value had declined to the extent where it was tolerable to end living (Timothy, 2008). The Oregon Death Act together with Washington decree modeled subsequent to it place specific needs, and protections before an individual may commits suicide with an aid of the physician. The patient should be sound-minded while requesting a treat...
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