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An Analysis of the Scriptures (Research Paper Sample)




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In Micah's book, one of the most interesting passages is the fourth chapter on the thirteenth verse, where the prophet outlines the Lord's plan regarding Zion's restoration. The prophecy focuses on a restored Zion's strength, with each member's role outlined concerning the renewal. Micah's description of the phrase implies a new hope for Zion, especially after the previous passages discoursed Jerusalem, Judah, and Samaria's destruction.
Micah 4:13 – "Rise and thresh, O Daughter of Zion, for I will give you horns of iron;
I will give you hoofs of bronze, and you will break to pieces many nations. You will devote the ill-gotten gains to the LORD, their wealth to the Lord of all the earth."
Word and Phrase Studies
* Daniel 7:7 – "After that, in my vision at night I looked, and there before me was a fourth beast – terrifying and frightening and very powerful. It has large iron teeth; it crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. It was different from all the former beasts, and it had ten horns."
* Daniel 8:20 – "The two-horned ram that you saw represents the kings of Media and Persia."
* Psalm 75:5 – "Do not lift your horns against heaven; do not speak with outstretched neck."
* Psalm 75:10 – "I will cut off the horns of all the wicked, but the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up."
* Psalm 118:27 – "The Lord is God, and he has made his light shine upon us. With boughs in hand, join in the festal procession up to the horns of the altar."
* 1 Kings 22:11 – "Now Zedekiah son of Kenaanah had made iron horns and he declared, 'This is what the LORD says: 'With these you will gore the Arameans until they are destroyed.'"
* Zechariah 1:18 – "Then I looked up–and there before me were four horns!"
* Zechariah 1:19 – "I asked the angel who was speaking to me, 'What are these?' He answered me, 'These are the horns that scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.'"
The word horn is mentioned in the Old Testament on several occasions, coupled with different meanings and varying emphases. Common original words for horns were qeren in Aramaic to symbolize a musical instrument (Smith 158). It was known as shofar in Hebrew to symbolize a ritual musical instrument for use during a King's anointing, and keras in Greek to symbolize power, strength, and salvation.
Daniel 7:7 refers to the horn as a metaphoric symbolism of the fourth beast's power, with ten horns (keras) symbolizing more power than the former beasts' mightiness. Similarly, Daniel 8:20 implies the two-horned ram representing the two kings of Media and Persia, symbolizing power. Psalm 75:5 uses the term horn as representing the mouth, which is also a musical instrument, or qeren. However, Psalm 75:10 represents the horn as the mouth or device of wickedness and not God's praise. Psalm 118:27 denotes the horn as the shofar because of its representation in the altar's ritual processes. 1 Kings 22:11 and Zechariah 1:18 use the word horn as a keras to symbolize power and strength, with 1 Kings focusing on destroying the Arameans. Comparatively, Zechariah 1:19 uses the horns to represent kingship or mightiness that scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.
Consequently, the meaning of horn or horns is used differently in the bible. Daniel and Zechariah use the word horn to imply strength, power, and symbolism of the kings during their reigns in those periods (Ross 443). Psalm uses the word to represent musical instruments that may be regarded as holy or wicked to the LORD depending on their use. 1 Kings also uses the term to imply power and strength, but not kingly power as with Daniel and Zechariah. However, the term horn in Micah represents power and strength, similar to 1 Kings' meaning. It uses the word in collaboration with iron to signify enormous strength that will enable Zion's Daughter to break many nations. The use of the term horn in Micah differs from the rest of the biblical verses mentioned because it does not represent a keren or a shofar.
* Deuteronomy 14:6 – "You may eat any animal that has a split hoof divided in two, and that chews the cud."
* Ezekiel 26:11 – "The hoofs of his horses will trample all your streets; he will kill your people with the sword, and your strong pillars will fall to the ground."
* Ezekiel 32:13 – "I will destroy all her cattle from beside abundant waters no longer to be stirred by the foot of a man or muddied by the hoofs of cattle."
* Isaiah 5:28 – "Their arrows are sharp, all their bows are strung; their horses' hoofs seem like flint, their chariot wheels like a whirlwind."
* Jeremiah 47:2-3 – "The people will cry out; all who dwell in the land will wail at the sound of the hoofs of galloping steeds, at the noise of enemy chariots and the rumble of their wheels. Fathers will not turn to help their children; their hands will hang limp."
* Judges 5:22 – "Then thundered the horses' hoofs–galloping, galloping to his mighty steeds."
* Leviticus 11:7 – "And the pig, though it has a split hoof; it is unclean for you."
* Psalm 69:31 – "This will please the LORD more than an ox, more than a bull with its horns and hoofs."
The word hoof is also used in the Old Testament to symbolize varying meanings. In Hebrew, the term hoof is known as parsah, meaning an animal's foot. Comparatively, the term hoof is known as regel in Aramaic to represent the stumping of feet, animals' hoofs, and legs. Also, the Greek word for hoof is οπλή, meaning an animal's feet. These words are distributed within the biblical scriptures to symbolize different meanings ranging from the literal animals' hoofs, terror, war preparations, and objects pleasing to the LORD.
Deuteronomy 14:6 refers to the word hoof as representing parsah, an animal's feet. The paraphrase uses the term hoof to define a distinction between clean and unclean animals. A similar meaning is displayed in Leviticus 11:7, implying a split hoof as denoting unclean animals (Lundbom 467). The definition differs from that in Ezekiel 26:11. Hoofs signify dominion, especially during a war, as the hoofs "trample over the streets." Ezekiel 32:13 conveys a different meaning of the word hoof, implying prosperity because killing the cattle represents a loss. Isaiah 5:28, Jeremiah 47:2-3, and Judges 5:22 use the name in similar fashions, representing war or terror when people hear the hoofs' sound. However, Isaiah 5:28 primarily focuses on war preparations, with the hoofs signifying a preparedness that aims to instill terror feelings against the enemy group. Psalm 69:31 uses the word hoof differently, with parsah representing a worship instrument to the LORD, describing the hoofs as pleasing to the LORD.
Therefore, the meaning of hoof or hoofs is used differently in the bible. Deuteronomy and Leviticus use the word to formulate a distinction between clean and unclean animals. Ezekiel uses the term to represent dominion and prosperity on several occasions. Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Judges use the word to express terror, with Psalm utilizing the name to imply an object pleasing to the LORD. However, the use of hoof in Micah represents dominion, not prosperity, or a pleasant object to the LORD. When powered with the hoofs of bronze, the hoof denotes the Daughter of Zion's authority over her enemies, granting her the power to dominate many nations.
Daughter of Zion
* Isaiah 1:8 – "The Daughter of Zion is left like a shelter in a vineyard, like a hut in a field of melons, like a city under siege."
* Isaiah 37:22 – "This is the word the LORD has spoken against him: "The virgin Daughter of Zion despises and mocks you. The daughter of Jerusalem tosses her head as you flee."
* Jeremiah 6:2 – "I will destroy the Daughter of Zion, so beautiful and delicate."
* Lamentations 2:13 – "What can I say for you? With what can I compare you O Daughter of Jerusalem? To what can I liken you, that I may comfort you, O Virgin Daughter of Zion? Your wound is as deep as the sea. Who can heal you?"
* Lamentations 4:22 – "O Daughter of Zion, your punishment will end; he will not prolong your exile."
* Psalm 9:14 – "That I may declare your praises in the gates of the Daughter of Zion and there rejoice in your salvation."
* Zechariah 2:10 – "Shout and be glad O Daughter of Zion. For I am coming, and I will live among you, declares the LORD."
* Zephaniah 3:14 – "Sing, O Daughter of Zion; shout aloud O Israel!"
The phrase "Daughter of Zion" is used in the Old Testament on several occasions, coupled with distinct yet closely-related meanings. Zion conveys the Jewish homeland or nationalism, with the word daughter implying a united people; men, women, and children. Hebrew denotes the phrase "Daughter of Zion" as bat Tzion, a personification of the city of Jerusalem. Comparatively, the Greek language conveys the expression "Daughter of Zion" as κόρη του ζιών, a personification of Zion and its population. κόρη του ζιών and bat Tzion symbolize differing meanings regarding the biblical authors' intentions.
Isaiah 1:8 refers to the phrase "Daughter of Zion" as representing Jerusalem's splendor, especially with the accompanying words being the...

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