Recyclable Materials in Concrete by Using Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Brick (Research Paper Sample)
This paper explores previous studies that investigated the use of palm oil fly ash as a replacement of cement in terms of compressive strength, properties and application. Additionally, the review will focus on brick as a replacement of coarse aggregate based on properties and performance.source..
Recyclable Materials in Concrete by Using Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Brick
Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter explores previous studies that investigated the use of palm oil fly ash as a replacement of cement in terms of compressive strength, properties and application. Additionally, the review will focus on brick as a replacement of coarse aggregate based on properties and performance. Concrete as a human-made material, is extensively utilized building material within the construction industry. It features a rationally selected mixture of binding materials including water, coarse and well graded fine aggregates, and cement. Concrete possesses a high compressive strength, low maintenance, durability, and built-in-fire resistance. However, concrete can be considered an inherently shiny (brittle) material with low tensile strength compared to the compressive strength, thus require significant reinforcement.
According to Ahmad et al., (2008) one potential recycle material from the palm oil industry is palm oil fuel ash which has siliceous compositions and is reacted as pozzolans to generate a denser and stronger concrete. There are numerous experimental works undertaken by introducing recycled components such as palm oil fuel ash (POFA) as a cement substitute with various percentages to enhance concrete properties. Through research efforts and public concerns, the waste components have the potential of being used as construction materials to substitute traditional Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) (Ahmad et al., 2008).
2.2 Origin of POFA
Palm oil fuel ash is a by-product generated within palm oil mill. After the extraction of palm oil from the palm oil fruit, the palm oil shell and palm oil husk are burned in form of fuel within the palm oil mill boiler. Generally, after burning around 5% palm oil fuel ash (POFA) by weight containing solid wastes is generated (Sata et al., 2004). In some instances, the ash generated differs in color tone from darker shade to whitish grey based upon the content of carbon within it. Simply put, the physical properties of POFA are significantly determined by the operating system within the palm oil mill.
Practically, POFA generated within Malaysian palm oil mills is thrown away without profitable returns (Sumadi & Hussin, 1995). In the 20th or 21st century, POFA remains a nuisance towards the environment and is disposed off without being utilized for other purposes compared to other kinds of palm oil by products. Since Malaysia continues to increase palm oil production, thus huge quantities of ashes would be generated and failure of finding a solution in the use of the by-product would pose serious environmental concerns.
2.3 POFA a New Pozzolanic Material
Malaysia is the leading exporter and producer of palm oil and its related products (Rashid & Rozainee, 1993). The palm shell and fiber acquired as waste products in the industry are used generally as boiler fuel for generating steam for palm extraction and electricity production process. The ash generated by burning palm shell and fiber is regarded as a waste product, and disposing it causes numerous concerns. As a common practice, the ash is thrown into wastelands bordering the mills. However, experimental laboratory studies have indicated that the ash possesses ideal pozzolanic characteristics, which make it possible to replace cement within mortar and cement mixtures. Seemingly, POFA is known with different names such as oil-palm ash (Tay; 1990).
2.4 Chemical Composition of POFA
Both chemical analysis and physical properties showed that POFA can be considered a pozzolanic material (Sumadi & Hussin, 1993). This pozzolanic material may be categorized in Classes C and F as specified within ASTMC618-92a (1994). POFA has moderate silica content while the content of lime is low compared to OPC (Awal & Hussin, 1997). However, POFA's chemical composition may differ because of the operating system within the palm oil mill.
2.5 Strength and Durability of POFA
Several studies have been undertaken in relation to POFA's durability and strength, for instance Sata et al., (2004) diligently studied POFA to determine its benefits in concrete technology in terms of enhancing concrete properties such as durability and strength. Abu (1990) the researcher that pioneered POFA research has focused on examining agricultural ash and his findings showed that POFA was a pozzolanic material that could be utilized partially to replace upto 35% of cement within mortar mixes; additionally, the researcher found that POFA exhibited similar strength as that of control mortar. Another study undertaken by Awal & Hussin (1996) found that POFA concrete acquire significant strength when 30% of cement is substituted using palm oil fly ash. The findings revealed that the optimum strength increase took place under a 30% substitution rate; however, additional increments to the ash content led to a gradual decrease in concrete strength. Additionally, the two investigators stated that an increase in POFA fineness increased the strength of concrete compared to coarse ones (Awal & Hussin, 1996).
Brick Waste as Cement and Coarse Aggregate Replacement
Husain et al. (1995) investigated the use of treated or untreated crushed
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