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3 pages/≈825 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Research Paper
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Breast Cancer Prevention (Research Paper Sample)


This paper outlines the various ways through which breast cancer can be prevented.

Breast Cancer Prevention
One in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer during their life time. This is according to a 2013 study conducted by the American Cancer Society among US women .The study also found that about 232,340 new cases of breast cancer and 39,620 of breast cancer deaths were reported in 2013 (DeSantis, Ma and Bryan 52). Breast cancer is the greatest cause of death in women. Breast cancer does not only affect women, but it also affects men, though much fewer cases are reported in men compared to women. Due to the high levels of morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer, there is great need to prevent the disease. Prevention of breast cancer is achieved by reducing the risk of developing the cancer. Breast cancer can be prevented through examination for early detection, through maintenance of a good diet and proper nutrition, through physical activity, and through weight reduction.
Breast cancer can be prevented if diagnosed early. This can be done through self-breast examination or screening in a cancer clinic. Self- breast examination is an exercise any woman can carry out from their homes to look for changes or problems in their breast. The best time for self-breast examination is within three to five days after menstruation, because the breasts are not tender or lumpy during this time. Self- breast examination can be conducted when the women is lying on their back. It involves circular motions using the fingers to examine the whole breast and the axilla. This examination helps the women to detect any lumps on abnormalities on their breast tissues so that they can seek medical assistance in case of any problem. Besides self-examination, breast lumps, swellings and other abnormalities associated with cancer can be diagnosed by screening. This involves examining breast for cancer before signs or symptoms manifest. Frequent screening of breast cancer allows early detection, prevention and treatment of breast cancer. All women should be mobilized to adopt a regular routine for screening test and more those at higher risk due to family history of breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer is usually conducted in the hospitals and clinics. Screening test involves mammogram and clinical breast examination. A mammogram is a low dose x ray to examine the breast and frequent mammogram is recommended while clinical breast examination is done by a healthcare provider by the use of their hands to detect any changes in the breast tissues (Smith, Saslow and Sawyer 153). When breast abnormalities associated with breast cancer are diagnosed early enough, they can be removed through surgery hence avoid the development of cancer. The prognosis of early breast cancer tumors can also be improved through healthy diet (Kwan, Weltzien and Kushi 919).
Breast cancer can be prevented by maintaining a healthy diet. Consuming food high in fat and calories increase the amount of estrogen circulating in the body and this increases risk for developing breast cancer. Maintaining a healthy eating habit can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Eating 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables each day, whole grains and limiting consumption of processed food, red meat and alcohol reduces the risk of breast cancer (Kwan, Weltzien and Kushi 920). This is because fruit and vegetable contain antioxidants which protect the tissues cells from damage associated with cancer. Consuming foods rich in vitamin D and calcium help the pre-menopausal women in the prevention of breast cancer.
The risk of developing breast cancer can also be reduced through physical activity. Friedenreich et al conducted a study to examine how aerobic exercise reduces breast cancer risk in women by influencing estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The researchers used a sample of 320 women in the study, and concluded that moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise resulted to estradiol and SNBG concentrations that are associated with lower breast cancer risk (Friedenreich, Woolcott and McTiernan 1458). Lynch, Neilson and Freidenreich examined the causality between exercise and lower breast cancer risk by reviewing more than 90 studies on the topic, and they found that there 25% lower risk of breast cancer in physically active women compared to physically inactive women (Lynch, Neilson and Fredenreich 34). This is an indicator that women should participate in moderate to vigorous exercise 30 minutes a day to prevent breast cancer.
Being overweight can predispose a woman to breast cancer, thus weight reduction can help in breast cancer prevention. Obesity is associated with elevated blood insulin and estrogen levels. In turn, increased estrogen levels and blood insulin are associative risks of breast cancer (Willett, Browne and Bain 734). Avoiding weight gain during adulthood significantly prevents breast cancer after menopause especially in women who don't use postmenopausal hormones. Change in sex hormones level cause an increase in estrogen level which are associated with obesity which is a risk for breast cancer. Women who gain a moderate increase in weight during their life are more likely to develop breast cancer in later life (Huang, Hankinson and Coditz 1409). Thus women should moderate and monitor their basal metabolic index {BMI} to avoid getting breast cancer in their life.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, and many new cases of the terminal disease are reported each year. There is henceforth a great need to prevent breast ...
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