5 pages/≈1375 words
Bahrain Conflict (Research Paper Sample)
who are the actors involved? the issue? the solutions? on bahrain source..
Name: Course: Tutor: Date: Bahrain Conflict The rather tiny island has witnessed increasingly violent and or deadly protests since 2011. Throughout this period, protestors have demanded democratic reforms as well as equal rights. Some have gone so far as to call for the dissolution of the monarchy. Indeed, the common media description of the conflict in Bahrain points to a compelling storyline of Shiite majority persons struggling to obtain their absolute rights against a Sunni-led regime. The result is that the world acquires a government its citizen’s narrative implying the government’s need to shed its pigheadedness and or the people to moderate their demands. More so, the quest for a political resolution in the country has been based along these lines. Altogether, the conflict in Bahrain is quite complex as evidenced below. This paper critically examines the main actors involved in the conflict through providing examples. Most importantly, it also presents the issue on Bahrain and the most appropriate solutions on the same. To reveal the actors in this conflict, the three main factions in Bahraini politics are used. This includes the government, different opposition groups as well as the loyalist opposition. Worth noting is that some of these camps do not fall precisely along sectarian lines. Nonetheless, such a triangle of divergence has grown more entrenched by each hour as moderates fall victim to the ever rising fragmentation plus polarization of Bahraini society (International Crisis Group 27-32). This has also contributed to the belief that any hope of reaching real reconciliation ought to include all three factions. However, in all camps, the hard-line stances least likely to engage in such a conversation grow stronger every hour. The internal divisions contributing to the divisions among the actors are well known. Various theories based on the above mentioned have been clearly presented in order to provide a point of reference from where the internal divisions divide. For instance, the anti-reform camp led by the PM (prime minister) plus the head of the defense force in the country believe that reforms would lead to a slippery slope –the end of al-Khalifa regime. On the other hand, the reform group led by the crown prince views reform as a requirement to ensure the government bends though does not fail under popular pressure. The conflict has resulted as the two actors attempt acquiring the upper hand. It is recorded that in the past decade, the crown prince’s reorganization faction accumulated influence through a broad reform project referred to as Economic vision 2030 (Hiltermann 1). All along, the vision disputed the prime minister through establishing a number of reform-minded bodies under the prince’s tutelage -effectively creating a matching cabinet rival to the PM’s official cabinet. Again, the anti-reform actors gained an upper hand for the period of the uprising, particularly following the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) military action into Bahrain blocked the path to negotiations between the opposition and the crown prince. In modern times, the crown prince’s main reform bodies have come under considerable pressure. As mentioned above, the issue surrounding the conflict in this country revolves around reform. This has meant that the issue has become sophisticated, and at times to include religious characteristics and others. All those characters in addition to private agencies have complicated the situation in terms of realizing the best solution. For instance, further meddling up with the issue of reform, the government has tried to replace the tale of a peaceful uprising for reform with an entirely different one –the nation’s majority Shia seeking to drive out the Sunnis. There have also been narratives about Shia’s intent to hand the nation over to Iran. All in all, the simple issue of reform needed in the country has ended up assuming different dimensions. Even though latest protests have been led by principally Shia opposition factions, the country’s urban people have long been mixed plus the uprising have included Sunnis frustrated with the manner in which the nation is run (Legrenzi 21). Recently, through mobilizing Sunnis against Shia on the basis the latter group is manipulated by a greedy Iran, the government accelerated Shia-Sunni hostility making it the overriding issue. On the whole, the clearly sectarian dialogue seems to have less to do with ancient communal differences. It is purely the regime’s efforts to deflect attention from mismanagement plus corruption –some of the ills contributing to call for reform. In addition, the fact that the premier opposition parties seem Shia Islamist has not helped. Al-Wefaq, one of the largest factions, has been criticized by secular Bahrainis (Shia and Sunni) for its quest of a religiously based traditional political agenda. What is more, Sunnis accuses this group of being a local agent for Iran’s theocratic administration. The ruling family through the government, from its side, has exploited Sunni disquiet with Al-Wefaq to rally the Sunni community (International Crisis Group 27-33). The government has sought to whip up sectarian sentiments hoping to alter the perception of this conflict - from a conflict that involves a well-liked pre-democracy movement against and an authoritarian regime to a conflict of sectarian fight back between Shia and Sunni. This way, the government hopes to cover up the core issue about reform plus legitimize its illegal efforts of maintaining order. In reality, the issue is all about reform as people (Shia and Sunni) go against a regime determined to oppose swift or gradual transformation. Expectedly, achieving solutions for the conflict in the country has proved a difficult task. Evidently through research, there are diverse reasons, which are well explained to support the above statement. For example, attaining solutions for the conflict continues to prove a difficult task because of several dynamics that have led to the polarization plus fragmentation hindering reconciliation. It is worth noting that a great rift of distrust divides the actors, thus complicating the entire situation. Undeniably, various reasons have been provided to show why the great rift of distrust has always divided the actors. From a literal point of view, this means that every time the regime a superficial reform scheme, it make...
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