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Religion & Theology
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Sociology of Community Organizations Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)

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The essay should be in context of Sunni Muslims and don’t use advanced vocabulary (as my english is poor), and prior to writing please Read & search on the web on your own apart from the sources that is given. The topic is sociology of community organizations. Detailed info regarding the concept of community organizations is given down below. The essay should be based on readings searches from the web as well as surveys that is done in the community that the essay talks about, so you should prepare a survey questionnaire and ask get answers from the community. The essay should be 13 pages long. You should talk about at least 2-3 of the following 4(again detailed info given down in the below). 1.religious congregations, 2. trade unions 3. neighborhood groups 4.ethnic associations You may check the following resources but don’t be too much dependent on them, you should find other resources; http://www.neicc.net http://pacificainstitute.org/ http://embracerelief.org/ http://www.dialogboston.org/

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Sociology of Community Organizations
Introduction
Conceptualizing a community as a set of relations in which various facets operates in unison with other social units is a viable approach to describing a communal organization (Freeman and Pino145). Certain inherent factors such as human behaviors do bring the community together. The varied values, traditions, and shared objectives among other socio-economic aspects are responsible for bridging various gaps in a social setting (Freeman and Pino146). This document analyzes such aspects from the perspective of Sunni Muslim society with a special focus on their congregation (worship), organization, ethnic associations and relationship with other faiths.
Religious congregations of the Sunni Muslims
The Sunni Muslims, just like most groups in Islam congregates to make ritual prayers five times per day. They also include other aspects of obligatory supplications otherwise known as ‘duaa’ to direct their daily chores and beliefs (Al-Krenawi and John 290). These prayers are very clear and are based on strong beliefs and wisdoms of the Quran. They congregate before starting a meal to show gratitude to Allah for the provision and as a show of appreciation. They also individually offer supplications early in the morning immediately after waking up and before they enter their mosques (Al-Krenawi and John 292). On a less ceremonial foundation, these types of religious supplications among the Sunni Muslims forms an important facet of their daily lives. For instance, when a Sunni Muslim is exchanging simple conversations, ‘the name of Allah is often beseeched’ as a sign of respect and recognition of the Supreme Being. 
For example, the familiar greeting ‘Assalaamu Alaykum’ which implies ‘peace be upon you’ is very popular among most Islamic societies and is seen as a form of worship and recognition of the supremacy of God the creator (Al-Krenawi and John 295). Notably, this is, however, not very particular to Sunnis, undoubtedly, but to every Muslim faithful around the world with each regions possessing own conversational complements. In a specific regions, for instance, a mutual manner of saying ‘thank you’ is to reiterate that ‘Allah ya‘tik al-‘aafiya’ that implies ‘May God grant you forgiveness’ which is very different from another Islamic region or society (Al-Krenawi and John 296). In such cases, the simplest manner through which an individual may show appreciation to a person is quite literally to offer prayers and supplications for them. In another specified region, another manner through which an individual can beseech somebody powerfully is to reiterate that ‘Allah ya khallik,’ which implies that ‘May God preserve you’.
In essence, most of these expressions used in congregations and in making religions supplications may be viewed as archaic, but in fact these forms of ritual congregational interactions are very common across many Islamic cultures (Al-Krenawi and John 298). In these Islamic cultures, this forms of ‘interlinking of supplications’ and everyday congregations are quite normal, but do vary depending on the region within the broader Sunni communities. Per se, it is increasingly hard to make certain generalizations about congregational activities among the Sunni Islam communities because the Sunni realm is so expansive spanning around so many diverse cultures, ranging from North Africa to Southeast Asia to Europe and the United States. Many Sunni Muslim scholars have claimed that a significant aspect of Islamic culture is its inherent ability to spread quickly and in so many assorted settings, in both the unenlightened and the modern days, and its relative flexibility to many cultural affiliations and regions congregations (Al-Krenawi and John 303). Also, it’s worth noting that there are no particular massive congregational culture that do characterize the Sunni Islamic cultures, and so daily life in these communities seems slightly dissimilar than, say, daily congregational life in other Islamic communities.
While Sunnis have definite doctrines and regulations governing their congregations in common, when it comes to daily lives and activities like diets, dressings, mosques arrangements, and spiritual activities, the Sunni universe is spiritually and culturally varied (Schmidt 15). One of the most stimulating facet of the modern day Sunni worshiper is the practice of ‘cross-cultural inclusion’ that is now common in the universal society that were currently inhabit. With the advent of technological trends and devices, the way Sunni Muslims and Islamic teachings do congregate has really changed (Schmidt 18). This is because, the process of knowledge sharing and practice has been made easier through the use of these technological devices such as computers that are slowly being integrated into the daily Sunni Muslims congregational practices.
For instance, the existence of several software applications that do have scheduled prayer times incorporated onto one's computer, and varies depending on the Sunni schools of thought (Schmidt 25). Also, the integration of Qurans on the internet and other technological devices has made it easy to congregate without necessarily going to the mosques. Simply stated, by including the Sunna congregational doctrines into everyday activities of the masses across the Sunni universe entails changing along with other practical modifications in society (Schmidt 27). Just like most of the modern spiritual culture has been transforming in most parts of the world due to the generational and cultural changes, the Sunni Islam is being modified to adapt to the daily congregational lives in a more innovative manner.
During the pre-Islamic period, several critics emerged vehemently refuting the importance of Islamic divisions together with their religious congregations and other creative and spiritual works in the society. During the ancient days, most of the Arabic nations were best recognized for their excellence in knowledge and spiritual beliefs (Goldberg 12). The Arabs mostly valued poetry as well as oratory and they used these two in expressing their various artistic views. The presentations could help in reflecting all the happenings in the society and shed some light to the public on important issues. Despites the Arabic poetry being in its peak period, some forms of criticism was also witnessed hence lowering the impetus of most of the religious leaders (Goldberg 17). The poems were first presented by the narrators, and finally recorded by the early authors who had enough experience. This was done to make the poems to be more reflective and touching on the diverse lives of the society members.
During the pre-Islamic period, religion and Islamic practices expanded and facilitated congregation among people of different tribes primarily due to the need to coexist and were carried out in specified places of worships. With increased integration, peace and cohesion was experienced enabling growth and development to effectively ensue (Ali 223). During such congregations, the worshipers’ most inherent thoughts and supplications were made known before Allah so as to attract favors and blessings from the Supreme Being. In addition, if any of the Sunni tribes was in any form of rivalry, this was a time to reconcile and seek individual forgiveness from God and from those wrongfully injured (Ali 226). This was done to encourage nonviolent cohabitation and to pass the needed information to the public domain. Simply stated, the Sunni have sacred moments that are characterized by spiritual rituals and devotions and mostly done in sacred places. These rights and congregational ceremonies are based on traditions and practices of Muhammad and Allah (Ali 229). The integration of prayers and ‘Sunna’ into the formal religious practices of the Sunni Muslims is a symbolic representation of the Islamic cultural and spiritual practices.

Trade unions of the Sunni Muslims
Just like in most Islamic communities, the Sunni Muslims intensely advocates for male supremacy and opposes the idea of women working outside their homes (De Wenden 68). In addition, they have strict legislations that governs their involvement in trade unions which may ultimately offer absolute socio-economic freedom of the populaces. Most of these laws are, however, directed towards the women workers whose place in the community is well defined in their Sunni’s religious practices (De Wenden 68). To them, the act of mixing women and men in the same workplace as advocated by the trade union organizations should be deemed ‘evil’ and not tolerated in their institutions. The Sunni, just like most Islamist have diverse views on trade unions that are Islamic and non-Islamic. However, all asserts that these trade unions are based on materialist thoughts and too much self-centered. This put the Muslim religion to be at risk of extinction and possible eradication of its essential doctrines (De Wenden 69). To the Sunni Muslims, a viable trade union organization should be very free from such possible disturbances from specific interest groups.
The primary objective should be to facilitate the promotion and adoption of spiritual teachings and socio-economic coexistence. The rising tension and revolution minds in most Islamic states can be attributed to the purported increase in personal autonomy and the rise of these trade unions. Essentially, ‘free man’ is more empowered to voice the opinions on the repressive regimes and extreme Islamic teachings. Given that the social base of Sunni Islamic doctrines do cut across the social spectrum, justice and competence in work settings is absolutely necessary (De Wen...
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