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History and Development of Dishwashers (Research Paper Sample)


Please do your best to incorporate in-text citations into this draft. For reminders about how to use in-text citations please check out this handy guide! (Links to an external site.)
2 Introductory paragraphs (hooking the reader through historical anecdote and/or personal story/observations)
3-4 body paragraphs (history & developments: what happened? how did it happen? Who was involved? what has changed over time? What have the benefits and consequences been?)
2 concluding paragraphs (why does this technology matter? what does this technology's history make you think about, help you understand, and/or make you curious about? What do you think the future holds for your technology?)


Technology History Project- The Dishwasher
Before the onset of technology, human beings were handy creatures that depended heavily on their hands to accomplish any task. This was so for many communities until the emergence of technology that came along with technological advancements and gadgets that made work easier and relieved human beings from their handy nature of working. One of the most fascinating inventions ever created was the dishwasher. Today people do not have to do dishes the traditional way as the dishwasher is an indispensable invention despite controversies that its execution of tasks is not 100%, it has been proved to have increased efficiency making it reliable equipment.
In my observation, washing utensils can be tiresome and boring. In my traditional home, washing utensils was more tiresome due to large families or during home celebrations and holidays. Also, in workplaces such as restaurants and eateries, the magnitude of utensils is huge, making them incur expenses on many workers to clean the utensils. The invention of dishwashers has made work easier for families, restaurants, and people from various walks of life. Unlike hand-washing utensils which tend to leave water flowing on the faucet, the dishwasher saves water by using precisely the right amount per cycle.
History and Development of dishwashers
Josephine Cochran was born in 1839 in Ohio. Her family had creative and innovative inclinations since her father was a civil engineer and her grandfather, John Fitch, was an inventor. Her grandfather was awarded a steamboat patent for his steamboat-related inventions. She moved to Illinois with her sister and later got married to William Cochran in 1858 and they had two children. Cochran was a socialite accustomed to having staff do more of her house chores, including dishwashing. Together with her husband, they lived in a mansion where they hosted and entertained guests at dinner parties in their home using heirloom china dated from 1600s (Hithindra and Rohan). The burden of dishwashing was tough, and occasionally, her servants chipped some of her expensive kitchenware while washing in the sink. She made several attempts to clean the utensils by herself but she found the process boring and tiresome and decided to look for alternative means. This alternative was also meant to relieve housewives from the tedious work of washing utensils while still taking care of children and the whole household. The death of her alcoholic husband, William, in 1883 left her with little money and lots of debts also motivated her to design the dishwasher.
Joel Houghton designed a wooden machine in 1850 that splattered water on utensils using a hand-turned wheel. This was his first patent, although it was hardly functional. L.A. Alexander then advanced the system in the 1860s with a geared mechanism that enabled users to rotate racked dishes through the water (Welch et al.). This machine was a circular one that used a crank to function well. It had a wooden basket in the middle section where the dirty utensils were placed. These two inventions were not entirely successful since their efficiency and effectiveness were not high. In 1886, Cochran did her first invention of a practical dishwasher. This first model was designed at her home in a shed. She did some measurements for the dishes and made a wiring compartment where the plates, saucers, and cups were fitted, then placed them inside a wheel within the copper boiler. Powered by a motor, the wheel turned, and soapy water could splash over the utensils and clean them.
Cochran’s dishwasher design was the first to clean utensils using water pressure rather than scrubbers, and in December 1886, she was granted a patent. Other inventors had attempted to create such a design, but none reached the threshold of commercial viability. She exhibited her creation at the 1893 World Fair and expected a warm reception from people on her invention. She also advertised it in the local newspaper and through her friends, who commonly called her design “Cochran Dishwasher” (Welch et al.). However, hotels and big eateries were the only ones interested in her work due to the high costs incurred in hiring a lot of staff to clean the utensils.
Cochran dishwasher innovation did not gain more popularity until the 1950s. Initially, the dishwashers were purchased more by businesses than individuals as many homeowners decided to continue washing their utensils manually with complaints that the dishwasher left soapy residue on their utensils. Housewives who Cochran intended to help resisted this invention. They complained that the dishwashers used a lot of hot water, yet many households lacked water heaters that could meet the hot water supply. Many women in that era portrayed a negative attitude towards this innovation as they still believed in manual working and execution of tasks (Hithindra and Rohan). Cochran’s machine was a mechanical hand-operated one therefore, she established a firm that manufactured them, and they, later on, attracted more customers and gained popularity as kitchen aid appliances. Her friends were impressed by her work, which motivated her to do more. She then founded Garis-Cochran Manufacturing Company and became one of the best women in history who was creative, innovative, and determined. Today, a huge percentage of American households use dishwashers.
Advanced dishwasher innovations
Cochran’s machine navigation towards the dishwasher technology has succeeded in making work easier at homes and restaurants. However, despite this invention being successful, it was not fully effective. Initially, when house owners, especially women, resisted purchasing the dishwashers, they all brought out various issues associated with the dishwashers. They claimed that the machine was not as effective as manual dishwashing as it consumed a lot of water, did not remove all dirt, and required a lot of hot water. These were gaps that Cochran did not meet in her invention, and they became a basis for more innovators to improve on.
The modern dishwashers have advanced features and designs that are more home-friendly and spacious depending on the customer’s preferences. They come from various brand manufacturers, but they exhibit some standard features that are common to them all. Modern dishwashers have customizable racking options such as adjustable or foldable racks that enhance space and versatility without increasing the dishwasher's size (Stamminger 480). In the case of increased utensils, this feature allows adjustments to accommodate many utensils of different shapes and sizes. They are efficient at washing spoons, knives, forks, and other small utensils. They have inbuilt heating systems where sensors in that system detect an increase or decrease in water temperature and make adjustments. They are also made up of electric pumps that regulate their energy consumption. The in-build sensors also help reduce energy consumption by controlling water temperatures and capacity.
Benefits of using dishwashers
People who love cooking but do not fancy cleaning utensils could have their solution in purchasing a dishwasher. In a modern family, almost 3 hours in a day are meant for cleaning utensils, while in restaurants and eateries, workers spend 5 to 6 hours cleaning utensils due to a high magnitude of users (Cardinale et al., 619). This takes up time and energy and increases water consumption. Dishwashers help save time since a load done manually in one hour can be accomplished using a dishwasher in 10 minutes, saving up to 50 minutes to engage in other activities. According to recent research, dishwashers reduce water consumption by 74 % (Stamminger and Rainer, 480). Also, they are easy to use and handle, and once purchased, individuals can't imagine living without them, making life easier for them.
In order to clean dishes thoroughly, remove stains and kill germs, the water used needs to be about 60 degrees in temperature, which can't be achieved by hand washing where the water reaches 30 degrees (Cardinale et al., 625). The water in a dishwasher can heat above 60 degrees, thus ensuring that utensils are clean and germs-free. Finally, cleaning utensils require the use of chemical detergents, which may be harsh on the hands. Using dishwashers eliminates the possibility of harm from such chemicals. It's also safe to use on fragile utensils, prevents them from falling and smashing when han

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