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2 pages/≈550 words
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7 Sources
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APA
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Engineering
Type:
Research Proposal
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English (U.K.)
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Topic:

Ultrasensitive 2D silver Nanomaterials for the Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Cancer Biomarkers (Research Proposal Sample)

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The PROPOSED STUDY CONCERNS THE DEVELOPMENT OF Ultrasensitive 2D silver Nanomaterials for the Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Cancer Biomarkers.

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Ultrasensitive 2D silver Nanomaterials for the Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Cancer Biomarkers
Research Concept Note
Introduction
Ultra-sensitive nanosensors are a viable alternative to conventional cancer diagnosis methods such as PCA, ELISA, Nano LC-MS, 2D Page, enzyme immunoassay and western blotting ADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.09.017","ISBN":"1319-562X","ISSN":"1319562X","PMID":"28855814","abstract":"Colon cancer is the most common type of cancer and major cause of death worldwide. The detection of colon cancer is difficult in early stages. However, the secretory proteins have been used as ideal biomarker for the detection of colon cancer progress in cancer patients. Serum/tissue protein expression could help general practitioners to identify colon cancer at earlier stages. By this way, we use the biomarkers to evaluate the anticancer drugs and their response to therapy in cancer models. Recently, the biomarker discovery is important in cancer biology and disease management. Also, many measurable specific molecular components have been studied in colon cancer therapeutics. The biomolecules are mainly DNA, RNA, metabolites, enzymes, mRNA, aptamers and proteins. Thus, in this review we demonstrate the important protein biomarker in colon cancer development and molecular identification of protein biomarker discovery.","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Kuppusamy","given":"Palaniselvam","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Govindan","given":"Natanamurugaraj","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Yusoff","given":"Mashitah M.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Ichwan","given":"Solachuddin J.A.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"6","issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]},"page":"1212-1221","publisher":"King Saud University","title":"Proteins are potent biomarkers to detect colon cancer progression","type":"article-journal","volume":"24"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=4ba39672-e247-46ba-b20e-8b6b1f85d4a2"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(Kuppusamy, Govindan, Yusoff, & Ichwan, 2017)","manualFormatting":"(Kuppusamy, Govindan, Yusoff, & Ichwan, 2017","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(Kuppusamy, Govindan, Yusoff, & Ichwan, 2017)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(Kuppusamy, Govindan, Yusoff, & Ichwan, 2017)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}(Kuppusamy, Govindan, Yusoff, & Ichwan, 2017; ADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01122.x.Endothelial","ISBN":"0000000000000","ISSN":"08966273","PMID":"1000000221","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Swierczewska","given":"Magdalena","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Liu","given":"Gang","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Lee","given":"Seulki","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Chen","given":"Xiaoyuan","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"Chemical Society Reviews","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"7","issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]},"page":"2641–2655","title":"High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection","type":"article-journal","volume":"41"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cf6c1e18-9f0e-4809-954f-e4ea9d783ac0"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(Swierczewska, Liu, Lee, & Chen, 2012)","manualFormatting":"Swierczewska, Liu, Lee, & Chen, 2012)","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(Swierczewska, Liu, Lee, & Chen, 2012)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(Swierczewska, Liu, Lee, & Chen, 2012)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}Swierczewska, Liu, Lee, & Chen, 2012). The proposed study will be limited to nanoparticle-based biosensors because they exhibit unique properties such as magnetic relaxation, electrical, mechanical and optical properties attributed to higher surface areas, and quantum effects at the nanoscale are critical in the detection of biomarkers ADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01122.x.Endothelial","ISBN":"0000000000000","ISSN":"08966273","PMID":"1000000221","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Swierczewska","given":"Magdalena","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Liu","given":"Gang","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Lee","given":"Seulki","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Chen","given":"Xiaoyuan","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"Chemical Society Reviews","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"7","issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]},"page":"2641–2655","title":"High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection","type":"article-journal","volume":"41"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=cf6c1e18-9f0e-4809-954f-e4ea9d783ac0"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(Swierczewska et al., 2012)","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(Swierczewska et al., 2012)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(Swierczewska et al., 2012)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}(Swierczewska et al., 2012). In addition, ADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1038/nnano.2014.250","ISBN":"1748-3395","ISSN":"17483395","PMID":"25362477","abstract":"Blood contains a range of protein biomarkers that could be used in the early detection of disease. To achieve this, however, requires sensors capable of detecting (with high reproducibility) biomarkers at concentrations one million times lower than the concentration of the other blood proteins. Here, we show that a sandwich assay that combines mechanical and optoplasmonic transduction can detect cancer biomarkers in serum at ultralow concentrations. A biomarker is first recognized by a surface-anchored antibody and then by an antibody in solution that identifies a free region of the captured biomarker. This second antibody is tethered to a gold nanoparticle that acts as a mass and plasmonic label; the two signatures are detected by means of a silicon cantilever that serves as a mechanical resonator for 'weighing' the mass of the captured nanoparticles and as an optical cavity that boosts the plasmonic signal from the nanoparticles. The capabilities of the approach are illustrated with two cancer biomarkers: the carcinoembryonic antigen and the prostate specific antigen, which are currently in clinical use for the diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of colon and prostate cancer, respectively. A detection limit of 1 × 10(-16) g ml(-1) in serum is achieved with both biomarkers, which is at least seven orders of magnitude lower than that achieved in routine clinical practice. Moreover, the rate of false positives and false negatives at this concentration is extremely low, ∼10(-4).","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Kosaka","given":"P. M.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Pini","given":"V.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Ruz","given":"J. J.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Silva","given":"R. A.","non-dropping-particle":"Da","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"González","given":"M. U.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Ramos","given":"D.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Calleja","given":"M.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Tamayo","given":"J.","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""}],"container-title":"Nature Nanotechnology","id":"ITEM-1","issue":"12","issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]},"page":"1047-1053","title":"Detection of cancer biomarkers in serum using a hybrid mechanical and optoplasmonic nanosensor","type":"article-journal","volume":"9"},"uris":["http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=999adc86-8939-4450-a83e-6232d8783116"]}],"mendeley":{"formattedCitation":"(Kosaka et al., 2014)","manualFormatting":"Kosaka et al. (2014)","plainTextFormattedCitation":"(Kosaka et al., 2014)","previouslyFormattedCitation":"(Kosaka et al., 2014)"},"properties":{"noteIndex":0},"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"}Kosaka et al. (2014) confirmed that nanosensors have high reproducibility, accuracy and are affordable compared to traditional diagnostic methods. The specificity of the nano biosensors is augmented by the high surface area to volume ratio – which facilitates attachment and specific ligand binding (binding of the nanoparticles to protein biomarkers) at deficient concentrations, which results in higher specificity ADDIN CSL_CITATION {"citationItems":[{"id":"ITEM-1","itemData":{"DOI":"10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01122.x.Endothelial","ISBN":"0000000000000","ISSN":"08966273","PMID":"1000000221","author":[{"dropping-particle":"","family":"Swierczewska","given":"Magdalena","non-dropping-particle":"","parse-names":false,"suffix":""},{"dropping-part...

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