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Research Proposal
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Developing Particle Board From Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Wood Wastes (Research Proposal Sample)



This research proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university.
Signature……………………………………… Date………………………
Ondoo Kelvin Omondi
This research proposal has been submitted for examination with our approval as university supervisors.
Signature……………………………………… Date………………………
Dr. Patrick
Table of Contents
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Title page PAGEREF _Toc396391792 \h i
Declaration PAGEREF _Toc396391793 \h i
Table of Contents PAGEREF _Toc396391794 \h ii
List of Figures PAGEREF _Toc396391795 \h iii
1.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc396391796 \h 1
1.1 Historical Perspective PAGEREF _Toc396391797 \h 1
1.2 Processing of the nuts PAGEREF _Toc396391798 \h 3
2.0 Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc396391799 \h 4
2.1 Cashew Nut Shell Liquid PAGEREF _Toc396391800 \h 4
2.2 The characteristic of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) PAGEREF _Toc396391801 \h 5
2.2 The Reactivity of CNSL PAGEREF _Toc396391802 \h 6
2.3 The Common Application of CNSL PAGEREF _Toc396391803 \h 6
3.0 Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc396391804 \h 7
4.0 Justification PAGEREF _Toc396391805 \h 7
5.0 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc396391806 \h 8
5.1 Major Objectives PAGEREF _Toc396391807 \h 8
5.2 Specific Objective PAGEREF _Toc396391808 \h 8
6.0Methodology PAGEREF _Toc396391809 \h 9
6.1 Sample Collection PAGEREF _Toc396391810 \h 9
6.2 Preparation of Cashew Nuts Shells PAGEREF _Toc396391811 \h 9
7.0 Project Inputs PAGEREF _Toc396391812 \h 9
7.1 Apparatus and Equipment PAGEREF _Toc396391813 \h 9
7.2 Reagents and Solvent PAGEREF _Toc396391814 \h 9
8.0Extraction of CNSL PAGEREF _Toc396391815 \h 10
8.1 Soxhlet Extraction PAGEREF _Toc396391816 \h 10
8.2 Isolation of cardanol from CNSL PAGEREF _Toc396391817 \h 10
9.0 Work Plan PAGEREF _Toc396391818 \h 11
10.0 Budget PAGEREF _Toc396391819 \h 12
11.0 References PAGEREF _Toc396391820 \h 13
List of Figures
TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1: Young cashew nuts PAGEREF _Toc396391622 \h 1
Figure 2: The cross-section area of a cashew fruit PAGEREF _Toc396391623 \h 2
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Historical Perspective
Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentare) is a tropical evergreen plant native to the Americans which is now widely cultivated in Asia and Africa. It is a short, stocky, low spreading, evergreen tropical tree. It can grow as high as 14meters (46 feet) but the dwaft cashew nut grows upto 6 meters (20feet). The leaves are spirally arranged leathery textured 4-22 long and 2-15cm broad with smooth margins.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 1 1: Young cashew nuts
The cashew nut is a seed which is used as a snack, used in recipes and snake bites. Cashew nut is an ash-green or greenish-brown kidney-shaped seed at base of cashew apple which weighs between 4-6gms and is one of the prized vegetables in the world (Balasubramanian, 2001; Ogunsina & Bamgboye, 2007).
The internal structure of cashew nut has kernel, testa and shell. The kernel is the edible portion which is widely eaten as the snack-food or used as an ingredient in bakery products. The testa shields the kernel and separates it from the shell inside the internal cavity here the kernel develops. The shell is a layer which has three protective tissues namely meso-carp, epi-carp and the external integument of the nut. The meso-carp contains the cashew nut shell liquid where the endocarp limits its internal cavity. Thus the shell comprises of 50% of the weight of the raw nut, 25% kernel ad 25% natural cashew nut shell liquid (Venkata et al., 2008).
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC \s 1 2: The cross-section area of a cashew fruit
Cashew kernel is reported to be rich in fat (46%), protein (21.2%) and carbohydrates (22.3%) and thus providing 596kCal of energy per 100g of intake. It also contains substantial amounts of amino acids, vitamins and minerals which are very essential for human health. The high-oleic acid in cashew kernel oil is excellent frying oil, used in fruit olish, vegetable-based lubricant and feed stock for oleo-chemical industry (Holland et al., 1991).
According to Sanger et al., 2011, cashew nut plant is the major horticultural crop in Konkar regions. Cashew nut shell in this region is 20,000metric tons produced as waste products which is obtained during the de-shelling process. India is the largest producer, processor and exporter and also the second largest consumer of the cashew in the world. Total area under the cashew cultivation is about 8,540,000 hectare with an annual production of 6,200,000 tones.
1.2 Processing of the nuts
According to Kahyaoglu & Kaya, 2006; Shakerardekani et al., 2011, processing of the nuts requires conditions like thermal treatment or making the shell brittle and amendable to cracking. Thermal treatment involves roasting the nuts in air or in oil during which the caustic liquid in the meso-carp gets burnt. Afterwards the nuts are tumbled in wood ash to absorb residual liquid film on the shell (Azam & Judge, 2001). The products of the reaction that occurs between sugars and amino acid during roasting of these edible nuts leads to flavor, color and taste (Nikzadeh & Sedaghat, 2008). Cashew nuts roasting generates thick acrid fume that pollutes and makes the environment very uncomfortable.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Cashew Nut Shell Liquid
Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a viscous liquid found in the honeycomb structure of the cashew nut shells having a bitter taste and it is dark brown in color (Francisco et al., 2006). It is thus a by-product obtained from the isolation of kernel through roasting of the raw nuts. CNSL represents one of the major and cheapest sources of naturally occurring non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids such as anacardic acids (2-hydroxy-6-[(8Z,11Z)-pentadeca-8,11,14-trienyl]benzoic acid) (Figure 3), cardanols (3-[(E)-pentadec-8-enyl]phenol) (Figure 4), methylcardols (2-methyl-5-pentadecylresorcinol) (Figure 5) and polymeric materials.
Figure 3: Anacardic acid
Figure 4: Cardanol
Figure 5: Methylcardols
2.2 The characteristic of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)
Natural CNSL contains atleast 90% by weight anacardic acid, a derivative of O-carboxyphenol that readily decarboxylates on heating and converts to cardanol. The remaining 10% of CNSL consists of cardol, a resocinol that is responsible for vesicative activity of the CNSL. Raw CNSL has a relative density because it has anacardic acid as the major fraction thus there is intermolecular attraction between the electronegative oxygen atom and the partially positive hydrogen atom of the phenol core as a result the molecules are closely packed together. Decrease in specific gravity in the decarboxylated CNSL is due to the elimination of hydrogen bond during decarboxylation.
De Lima et al., 2008, further stated that actual composition of CNSL, color and stability depend on the extent of duration and condition of storage as well as the method of production and the nature of heat applied. The chemical characteristics of cardols includes presence of double bond at the 8-position of the long chain in the monoene, diene and triene components and a convenient aromatic orcinol system.
2.2 The Reactivity of CNSL
CNSL’s phenolic nature and unsaturation in the side chain offers reaction sites on the aromatic ring and also on the side chains which makes it very suitable raw material for variety of reactions. It thus reacts with active methylenes like formaldehydes or hexamethylene tetranine via the hydroxyl group and can undergo addition polymerization through unsaturation present in the side chain. Therefore, different types of resins can be synthesized from CNSL, its isolated components or even chemically modified CNSL.
2.3 The Common Application of CNSL
Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is an important and versatile industrial raw material. There are more than 200 patents for its industrial application, in particular, its use as raw material for phenolic resins and friction powder for the automotive industry (brake linings and clutch disks). In drum-brake lining compounds, cashew resins are used as fillers, and may also be used as binders. In disc pads, the role of cashew resin is restricted to the use of friction dust as a filler. The advantage of the cashew resins compared with synthetic phenolic resins is that they are more economical and produce a softer material, which gives a quieter braking action .
CNSL is also used in mouldings, acid-resistant paints, foundry resins, varnishes, enamels and black lacquers for decorating vases, and as insecticides and fungicides. In tropical medicine, CNSL has been used in treating leprosy, elephantiasis, psoriasis, ringworm, warts and corns.
After extracting the CNSL, the cashew nut shells can be burned to provide heat for the decor...
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