13 pages/≈3575 words
RECOVERY OF WASTE PLASTIC PAPERS AND UNWANTED CLOTHING INTO COSMETICS PRODUCTS (Research Proposal Sample)
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RECOVERY OF WASTE PLASTIC PAPERS AND UNWANTED CLOTHING INTO COSMETICS PRODUCTS MAINA ESTHER WAMAITHA Research Plan submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of Doctorate of Science in Chemistry of Tokyo Institute of Technology 2016 DECLARATION This research plan is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university. Signatureâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ Dateâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ Maina Esther Wamaitha This research proposal has been submitted for examination with our approval as university supervisors. Signatureâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ Dateâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ Professor Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan TABLE OF CONTENT TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc467065073 \h ii TABLE OF CONTENT PAGEREF _Toc467065074 \h iii LIST OF PLATES PAGEREF _Toc467065075 \h iv ABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc467065076 \h v INTRODUCTION & LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc467065077 \h 1 1.1 Background PAGEREF _Toc467065078 \h 1 1.2 Land fills PAGEREF _Toc467065079 \h 1 1.3 Plastics recycling PAGEREF _Toc467065080 \h 2 1.4 Recycling of the unwanted clothing PAGEREF _Toc467065081 \h 2 1.5 Cosmetic hair PAGEREF _Toc467065082 \h 2 1.6: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM PAGEREF _Toc467065083 \h 3 1.7: JUSTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc467065084 \h 3 1.8 HYPOTHESIS PAGEREF _Toc467065085 \h 4 1.9 OBJECTIVES PAGEREF _Toc467065086 \h 4 1.9.1 Overall Objective PAGEREF _Toc467065087 \h 4 1.9.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc467065088 \h 4 2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS PAGEREF _Toc467065089 \h 5 2.1 Sample Preparation and Purification PAGEREF _Toc467065090 \h 5 2.2 Plastic papers Functionalization PAGEREF _Toc467065091 \h 5 2.3 Chemical recycling of the plastic papers and unwanted clothing into cosmetics hair products PAGEREF _Toc467065092 \h 5 2.4 Comparative in vivo and in vitro tests on the cosmetics hair and the marketed hair PAGEREF _Toc467065093 \h 5 WORK PLAN PAGEREF _Toc467065094 \h 6 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc467065095 \h 7 LIST OF PLATES TOC \h \z \c "Plate" Plate 1: Synthetic hair PAGEREF _Toc467064831 \h 3 ABSTRACT In Japan, and in the wide world at large, majority of the consumers uses plastic papers and clothes. The plastic materials are durable and are molded into different products that can find use in other applications. Plastics production has increased markedly over the years due to their inexpensive and lightweight properties. Moreover, due to its wider usage, disposal, non-bio degradability properties, accumulation levels in our environment as landfills debris has resulted to a severe environmental pollution. Within the fashion industry however, recycling of unwanted clothing into other by-products have not been extensively explored. Recycling and conversion of these two materials will reduce the environmental impacts. Hence, the present study aims at plastic and clothing waste reduction strategies through recycling into cosmetic hair by-products. This will result in creation of employment opportunities, advances in systems of collection, sorting, reprocessing, and generally combined cooperation in action from the public, industries, and the government. Moreover, the formation of hair by-products will be comparatively good and will meet the high demands of the cosmetic products. INTRODUCTION & LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 Background The plastics industries have developed considerably due to invention of various polymers production routes from petrochemical sources. This is so because plastic have substantial benefits like low weight, durability and low cost (Hopewell et al., 2009). Moreover, paper in todayâ€™s world is used on daily basis in various applications. From green houses, coating, and wiring, to packaging films, covers, papers and containers (Al-Salam et al., 2009). The consumption levels are high and consequently increasing the high levels of papers in our environment. This has resulted to constraint levels in sourcing for the raw materials. Moreover, according to Ryan et al., (2009), substantial quantities of end-of-life plastics are accumulating in landfills as resulting in enormous negative effects. Recycling is clearly a waste management strategy as it practices the implementation concept of industrial ecology, reducing environmental impacts as well as sustainable recycling rather than sustainable forestry (Karademir et al., 2012Â ; McDonough and Braungart 2002Â ; Yilmaz and Gumuskaya, 2015). 1.2 Land fills Landfill is the conventional approach to waste management but have possed negative impacts to our environment. According to Oehlmann et al., 2009, a well-managed landfill should result in limited immediate environmental harm though there are long-term risks of soil contamination. In landfills, none of the materials used to produce plastics are recovered, a major setback (Defra, 2007). 1.3 Plastics recycling Plastic recycling involves plastic reuse, which can be categorized into four groups: primary (mechanical reprocessing into product with the equivalent properties), secondary (mechanical reprocessing into products requiring lower properties), tertially (recovery of chemical constituents) and quaternary (recovery if lower energy). Chemical recycling has an advantage of recovering the petrochemical constituents of the polymer, which could used to re-manufacture other synthetic chemicals (Patel, 2000). 1.4 Recycling of the unwanted clothing Consumers generally know to donate unwanted, good quality clothing and household textile to charities, give them to friends and relative, or sell them at a garage shops. They most likely donate if the item is too small, only slightly worn, no longer desired, or out of fashion. While serving the needy and reducing solid wastes are key benefits of donating textile. The process of recycling also creates jobs for citizen. 1.5 Cosmetic hair Hair has been synonymous with beauty for women. The global trade in cosmetic hair product is becoming a major industry. The unique properties of synthetic hair (plate 1) include, unique chemical composition, slow degradation rate, high tensile strength, and elastic recovery has led to many diverse uses. The variation however, depends with the culture, ethnicity, hairstyles, and hair care practices. The field of application varies from cosmetics industry, to agricultural sector and pollution control (Gupta, 2014). Plate SEQ Plate \* ARABIC 1: Synthetic hair 1.6: STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In Japan and world, at large, plastic papers are used on daily basis and have resulted to constraint levels in sourcing for the raw materials. The consumption levels are high and consequently increasing the high levels of plastics accumulating in the landfills resulting in enormous negative environmental effects. Again, unwanted clothing is known to be donated to charities, friends and relative, or sell them at a garage shops. 1.7: JUSTIFICATION Recycling is a strategy of reducing environmental pollution and creates jobs for its citizen. 1.8 HYPOTHESIS * The plastic papers and unwanted clothing are not recycled into cosmetic hair by-products. 1.9 OBJECTIVES 1.9.1 Overall Objective * To recycle plastic papers and unwanted clothing into cosmetic hair by-products. 1.9.2 Specific Objectives (1) Separation of plastic papers from other wastes (2) Washing, drying and sorting the plastic papers (3) Characterization of plastic papers using FT-IR techniques in order to determine the best for cosmetic hair synthesis (4) Chemical recycling of the plastic papers and unwanted clothing into cosmetics hair products (5) Comparative in vivo and in vitro tests on the cosmetics hair and the marketed hair 2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Sample Preparation and Purification Organic solvents of high purity will be used in the entire proposed project. About 200kg of pl...
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