Statement Of The Problem: Television, Radio, And Social Media (Research Proposal Sample)
TV commercial memory is affected more by previously viewed PROGRAMMING of the violent and sexually explicit PROGRAMMING as compared to neutral PROGRAMMING.
Every seller hopes to boost sales by advertising their products on different media platforms including television, radio, and social media. However, the type of content aired on this platforms and especially TV profoundly impacts the likelihood of customers to purchase products. In this light, sex and violence have been realized to impair the memory of viewers, and as a result, they experience difficulty in encoding and retrieving the content on the advertisement. On the other hand, those that watch neutral content can easily retrieve the information and are more likely to purchase the products. The research will look into how violent, and sexually explicit programming affects TV commercial memory as compared to neutral programming.
Statement of the Problem
The study is set to prove the impact of sex and violence on the ability to retrieve information on the embedded advertisements. Often, it is thought that violence and sex increase sales because a larger population is likely to watch this particular content. However, this is not the case because when a follow up is conducted on the viewers and they are asked about the description of the ads, a good number of them hardly recall what they saw. The reason is that, a human brain experiences difficulty in encoding unrelated information. For instance, if the program was on sex or violence then an ad on detergent or healthy living is shown, the viewers are unlikely to concentrate on the ad as they wait for it to end for them to go on with the program. As such, it is clear that sex and violent content do not really sell and instead of the viewers thinking of the ad that was shown, their thoughts are primarily on the sex and violent programs they watched. It is, therefore, imperative for sellers to consider this fact and work on placing their ads more on neutral content because this promotes concentration on the ad that is being advertised.
Review of Literature
A literature review of different sources was conducted, and several authors have almost similar thoughts on the impact of violence and sexual content on the viewers' memory and their inability to recall previous information on ads.
Cass (2017) uses an example of Fuguet's "Santiago" to prove that memory is indeed displaced based on the content of the fiction. The primary themes in the program are loneliness, substance abuse, and characters finding themselves in stressful relationships (Cass, 2017). As such the themes are likely to occupy the attention of the viewers and any ad or commercial embedded in the fiction may not be retrieved quickly. More so, Bushman (2007) attempted to find out whether there was an impact on remembering ads embedded in sexual, violent or neutral programs. A total of 324 students were used in the meta-analysis and for each of the programs, two ads ran after every twenty minutes of viewing. The programs went for forty-five minutes, and recall tests were conducted two days later. Bushman (2007) found out that that the commercials embedded in neutral programs were remembered easily than those in sexual programs. Both genders' memories were equally impaired, and thus, advertisers should limit the number of ads they insert in violent and sex programs if viewers are to remember the commercials.
Violent programs and those with sexual content do not market the products. Bushman (2005) sought to prove his point by conducting a study where he used people who were aged between 18 and 54 as they are the principal target for advertisers. The participants were divided into three groups and presented with violent, sexual and neutral programs to watch. Bushman (2005) later discovered that those who watched violent and sexual content could hardly recall the embedded memory advertisements compared to the group which was presented with the non-sexual programs. It was therefore concluded that memory on commercials is impaired in violent movies.
Every advertiser hopes to increase the purchase of their products, and the only way to do this is through advertising. Embedding ads in a program is one way that promoters do this, and they target especially those with sexual and violent content. However, this approach is not practical as most viewers do not pay attention to the commercials. Bushman and Bonacci (2002) decided to conduct a study of 324 participants and made them watch neutral, violent and sex programs. Nine ads were inserted in each of the programs, and the participants were made to recall the ads they had seen. Those who had watched neutral programs recalled the brands that had been advertised whereas those who watched sex programs could not remember the commercials. Bushman and Bonacci (2002) confirmed that people have difficulty in encoding unrelated concepts and that is why the ads that advertised detergents or food could not be remembered well because it did not relate with the sexual or the violent content.
Sex and violence have been linked to aggression among children and teenagers. Anderson and Bushman (2001) assert that children tend to engage in violent video games and movies or programs with sexual content without their parents' consent. As a result, children are prompted to participate in the activities they watch in these programs explaining the rise of violent traits among many adolescents today (Anderson & Bushman, 2001). While watching these programs, children will pay less attention to any ads that pop up in the program as the sexual and the violent content already occupies their minds. Some of the violent attributes that confirm that the televised program leads to aggression in children include drug and substance abuse, sexual encounters and robbery (Anderson & Bushman, 2001). After watching these programs, children can hardly remember any embedded ad but will narrate the program explicitly.
According to Bushman & Phillips (2001), most programs shown on the TV are violent, but this does not hinder advertiser from embedding their ads into the programs. Bushman & Phillips (2001) assert that an effective advertisement is that which people can remember and can retrieve information when asked. To reinforce their stand, Bushman & Phillips (2001) performed a meta-analysis consisting of 1700 participants and were presented with violent programs to watch. The primary objective of Bushman & Phillips (2001) was to confirm that these programs indeed impair memory on commercials and that this may not be the best platform for advertisers to market their good and services.
Additionally, Furnham and Mainaud (2011) posit that the TV programs with sexual content diminish the memory of commercials. Furnham and Mainaud (2011) performed a study among 82 French individuals who were between 18 a...
- Statement Of The Problem: Television, Radio, And Social MediaDescription: A literature review of different sources was conducted, and several authors have almost similar thoughts on the impact of violence and sexual content on the viewers' memory and their inability to recall previous information on ads....9 pages/≈2475 words| 10 Sources | APA | Psychology | Research Proposal |