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Effects of terrorism (Research Proposal Sample)

The task was to discuss the effects of terrorism on human security, a case study of mali and nigeria. the study employed an exploratory appraoch, and was mainly sourced from journals, reports and articles written by experts and a study of the militant groups activities in the region and how they impact human security. it recomended measure that can be taken to mitigate these groups activities to save lives and restore peace in the affected regions. source..
THE EFFECT OF TERRORISM ON HUMAN SECURITY: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA AND MALI BY Natalya Mumu Mwaisaka A Proposal Submitted to the School of Humanities and Social Science in partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the BA degree in International Relations UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY – AFRICA FALL 2022 STUDENT’S DECLARATION I, the undersigned, declare that this is my original work and has not been submitted to any other institution, or university other than the United States International University – Africa in Nairobi for academic credit. Signed______________________________Date___________________ Name: Natalya Mumu Mwaisaka (ID 663535) This work has been presented with my approval. Signed______________________________Date___________________ Supervisor Name: Dr. Leonard Maumo COPYRIGHT All rights reserved. No part of this dissertation report may be photocopied, recorded, or otherwise reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any electronic or mechanical means without prior permission of USIU-A or the author. Natalya Mumu Mwaisaka © year 2022 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I acknowledge with gratitude, the contribution of my university Professor Dr. Leonard Maumo. My university supervisor, Dr. Leonard Maumo for his constant guidance, encouragement, and insights that were key in the completion of this work. I am grateful to my class for all the support you have accorded me in this journey. Above all, I am grateful to my God for giving me the strength, provision, and enablement to pursue this endeavor. TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u STUDENT’S DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc120550680 \h iiCOPYRIGHT PAGEREF _Toc120550681 \h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc120550682 \h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc120550683 \h viiCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc120550684 \h 11.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc120550685 \h 11.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc120550686 \h 11.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc120550687 \h 21.3 General Objective PAGEREF _Toc120550688 \h 31.4 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc120550689 \h 31.5 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc120550690 \h 31.6 Significance and Justification of the Study PAGEREF _Toc120550691 \h 31.7 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc120550692 \h 4CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc120550693 \h 52.0 LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc120550694 \h 52.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc120550695 \h 52.2 Effects of Terrorist Attacks on Human Security PAGEREF _Toc120550696 \h 52.2.1 AQIM Terrorist in North Africa Mali PAGEREF _Toc120550697 \h 62.2.2 Boko Haram’s Terrorist Campaign in Nigeria PAGEREF _Toc120550698 \h 62.2.3 Human Security PAGEREF _Toc120550699 \h 82.2.4 Food Security and Nutrition PAGEREF _Toc120550700 \h 92.2.5 Economic Security PAGEREF _Toc120550701 \h 92.2.6 Health Security PAGEREF _Toc120550702 \h 102.3 Impact of Terrorist on Human Security in Nigeria and Mali PAGEREF _Toc120550703 \h 112.4 Effects of Terrorism on Political Security PAGEREF _Toc120550704 \h 122.5 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc120550705 \h 132.5.1 Human Security Theory PAGEREF _Toc120550706 \h 132.5.2 Liberalism PAGEREF _Toc120550707 \h 132.6 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc120550708 \h 14CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc120550709 \h 153.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc120550710 \h 153.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc120550711 \h 153.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc120550712 \h 153.3 Ethical Considerations PAGEREF _Toc120550713 \h 163.4 Population Sample PAGEREF _Toc120550714 \h 163.5 Study Site PAGEREF _Toc120550715 \h 163.6 Data Collection Methods PAGEREF _Toc120550716 \h 163.7 Data Analysis Methods PAGEREF _Toc120550717 \h 173.8 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc120550718 \h 17REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc120550719 \h 18APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc120550720 \h 19Appendix 1: Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc120550721 \h 19 ABSTRACT Terrorism, defined by Kofi Anan as ‘any action that is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants, with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or international organization to do something or not to do something has become rampant in recent years in West Africa. Contemporary discussions on Nigeria and Mali are almost inevitably replete with issues surrounding insecurity, militancy, insurgency, and terrorism, due to the linkages with economic, social, political, and governance activities, with spiraling effects on human security. This study therefore aimed at examining the effects of the group’s activities from social, political and, economic realms on human security. The study will employ an exploratory approach, which will rely on a desktop review of relevant sources that will include reports from experts as well as UNICEF reports also from authoritative journals and articles. The study will able to explore the effects of the group’s activities on how it affects the people wellbeing both economical. Social, political and health care of the people. The study will also recommend that measures to mitigate the group’s activities on human security by seek regional and local solution as well as international. CHAPTER ONE 1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction Terrorism, defined by Kofi Anan as ‘any action that is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or non-combatants, with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or international organization to do something or not to do something has become rampant in recent years in West Africa. This is in view of the fact that a number of groups in the sub-region has increasingly resorted to the use of the markers
of terrorism or terrorist acts enunciated by international instruments such as the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism of 1999 and ECOWAS Political Declaration and Common Position against Terrorism of 2013, namely ‘terrorist bombings, suicide attacks, kidnappings, hostage-taking, hijacking, mass murder, wanton assassinations, piracy and acts of sabotage of public and private properties, as well as the torching and desecration of religious and sacred places’ (ECOWAS 2013). In recent years, West African sub-region has been faced with a wave of terrorism, resulting in the death of hundreds of people, destruction of public and private properties, and the displacement of millions (Danfulani, 2018). West Africa is made up of independent, sovereign countries Benin Republic, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. A number of these countries have in recent years experienced terrorist attacks in which lives were lost and private and public properties destroyed. Mali, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, for example, experienced terrorist attacks between 2015 and 2016. However, this phenomenon of terrorism is more pronounced in Nigeria and Mali than any other country in the sub-region, as both countries are homes to some of the notorious terrorist groups in the world. Mali on the other hand often been described as a model of democracy and stability on the continent. Long recognized for its cultural richness embodied in ancient cities such as Timbuktu, Mali is also a close ally of the United States and an important participant in Global War on Terror3 (GWOT) efforts to counter terrorism and improve security in the Sahel region. While the democratically elected government overthrown the French troops under the auspices of a United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR), initiated combat operations against the country Islamist militants in the country remote northern region. According to David Lewis, (2016) Mali faces a complex toxic cocktail of rebels such as weapon, refugees, drought, smugglers and violent Islamic militants. While the transnational threat posed by AQIM and affiliated groups is of deepest concern to the United States and its European allies, violent extremism is only one of a number of issues destabilizing Mali’s security (Stewart, 2013). Given the interconnected nature of these challenges, policies and security frameworks that follow the French intervention has taken a broader comprehensive approach to security and stability in Mali that goes well beyond the provision of physical security but also including human security (Stewart, 2013). However, the inhuman activities of the Islamist terrorist have unsettled the Nigeria and Mali to the extent that the ample time and socio-economic and political resources that ought to have been channeled to the development of the country have been usurped in dealing with the group. In fact, Aworu (2015) avers that the entire country is being wasted on various efforts geared towards checkmating and possibly, annihilating the insurgency in the North East part of the country. This is because of the fact that the effects of these terrorist group cascade through the entire country and has constituted a major source of underdevelopment in the country. These groups are by far the deadliest terrorist groups in the sub-region, as their violent activities have had devastating effects on the sociopolitical, economic and corporate existence of the countries where they are situated, as well as in some of the adjoining countries The effects of terrorism that occurred both in Mali and Nigeria shows that terrorist attack has the potential to be a threat to human security. It is against this background that this study proposes to analyze the effects of terrorist insurgency on human security in Nigeria and Mali. 1.2 Problem Statement Peace and security are vital components of a country national and regional stability. This is because peace not only enhances harmonious integration among states but it also provides impetus suitable for social and economic growth. Nigeria and Mali both countries in the western Africa have been for many years encounter terrorist attack from different terrorist groups operating in the region, therefore, ...
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