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Engineering
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Research Proposal
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Schedule Delay Analysis Techniques in Industry & Research (Research Proposal Sample)

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discuss the Schedule Delay Analysis Techniques applied in Industry & Research

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Schedule Delay Analysis Techniques in Industry & Research
Abstract
Delays in construction works and projects are very common. These can be avoided in certain cases. The organization or company should choose a technique that is suitable that to help them work within the given schedule. Failure to deliver within the stipulated schedule results into claims and disputes that may result into court cases. The owner as well as the contractor may lose profits and benefits when such occur. The contractor is likely to take more time in the project than required and time for other projects may also be lost. The aim of this research was to find out the different techniques of scheduled delay analysis applied in industry and research. The frequency of their use was also compared to determine the most commonly used techniques. This work involves a theoretical study of comparing literature from different studies and then deriving data on the various techniques. The As-Planned vs. As-Built and the time impact techniques are the most widely used in both industry and research.
Introduction
The planning of every project is of utmost importance in any industry and research. Every project should have a defined life-cycle outlining the requirements and duration of the project. The parties involved in the project should all play their part in ensuring that the project goes to completion according to the schedule. In the construction industry and research field, several projects are carried out. These projects involve huge sums of money and time invested therein. It is the duty of every contractor to sign an agreement with the company or industry with the knowledge of all details on the project. This ensures that the project runs smoothly and that the requirements of the project are met as required.
Many construction projects are done by contractors employed by the project owners. The time for performance of the project is very important to the employer and the contractor. This issue of time required in the project makes it important for the contractor and the employer to analyze the various project delays that are likely to occur. This makes it possible for the contracting parties to make the right decisions on the “potential time and/or cost compensation claims” (Enshassi and Jubeh 3). These have to be outline clearly and they act as a reference point whenever any delay occurs in the course of the project. Loss of profits or benefits is almost inevitable for project owners. The owner of the project may suffer from the delay in having the project established within a particular time. This translates into other effects such as delayed earnings from the project. The contractor may also suffer in one way or the other. He is likely to incur extra cost in the project for over-staying in the project. In many cases, delay on the side of the contractor may happen in order to acquire an extension of the duration of the project. It may also happen in order to get compensated for loss experienced. This explains why delay analysis may result in disputes. This work focuses on the various scheduled delay analysis techniques applied in both industry and research. A theoretical study of various industries and research firms was done to ascertain the techniques commonly used.
Literature Review
Scheduled Delay Analysis Techniques serve to “calculate the project delay and work backwards to try to identify how much of it is attributable to each party (contractor, owner, or neither) so that time and/or cost compensation can be decided” (Nuhu 2). A given project is guided by a set of objectives and this should always be clearly outlined. Among the most common issues on projects are the details of the project, what was done, variances in the project and the effect of these variances on the accomplishment of the project. These factors have to be considered for every project as they define the terms of the project. The employer and the contractor are therefore able to make a valid agreement based on real variables. Delay analysis for projects is done in order to find out the amount of money each party in the contract is to pay in case of delays during the project (Enshassi and Jubeh 3). Delays are a major challenge to the contracted parties. In many occasions the parties view the delays as a failure on the side of the other party. This, in most cases, results into conflicts and claims that turn out to be costly to either party.
Various delay analysis techniques are applied in different set ups that help in defining these variables. Every project should have a method that is suitable for it. One method may work well for one project and that does not mean that it will be so for another project. It is therefore important to consider every project in totality and find out a method that would be most suitable for the given project. Different methods of delay analysis have been reported by various authors. The most common methods used are: As-Planned vs. As-Built; Impacted as-Planned; Collapsed As-Built; Window Analysis and Time Impact Analysis (Enshassi and Jubeh 3, Nuhu 4, Keane and Calekta 84).
As-Planned vs. As-Built: This technique involves comparison of the various activities of the critical path (original baseline technique) with those of the as-built system. It involves the assessment of delays in the project, identification of the procedures and sequences that define the time-period of the project and the consequences on the contracting parties (Enshassi and Jubeh 3, Nuhu 6, Keane and Calekta 103). It is a retrospective method. This technique looks at the plan and the finished project and then analyses the variables involved. It offers several advantages such as being cost-effective, simple and easy to use (Enshassi and Jubeh 3). As-Planned vs. As-Built relies more on common sense. The contractor and the owner can both contribute to the delays that may occur during this process. This techniques also has some disadvantages; “it assumes that both schedules are correct in activity duration and logic relationships sequences, failure to consider changes in the critical path and inability to deal with concurrent delays and complex delay situations” (Enshassi and Jubeh 3). The method does not have a ‘systematic procedure’ through which the degree of effects of the delays can be assessed discretely. It is recommended that this method is complemented by other methods (Nuhu 6). However, in projects that involve simple cases it can be used alone.
Impacted as-Planned technique involves the application of as-planned method alone in the delay analysis in which delays and disruption are viewed as activities into as-planned critical path schedule. This is in order to demonstrate the way the schedule completion time may be impacted by the delays (Enshassi and Jubeh 3). Delays and disruptions are studied to find out their effect on the planned project. It involves forecasting so as to prepare for the specific delay that is likely to be experienced. It does not require the as-built component in order to work effectively. This is because it assumes that the plan remains the same and that there is no variation in the critical path that may affect the project. This method is considered to be the least favorable technique since it has several theoretical flaws (Enshassi and Jubeh 3).
The Collapsed As-Built technique does not involve the as-planned schedule where an as-built critical path schedule with all the delays should be created. Removal of the delays from the schedule to produce collapsed as-built schedule will indicate what would have occurred for those events (Enshassi and Jubeh 3, Nuhu 13). The results are very accurate in most cases. This technique involves a lot of effort that is necessary for determining the as-built critical path (Nuhu 13). Changes in the critical path should be closely considered as it can lead to serious impacts that would affect the project negatively. Both complex and concurrent delays in should be dealt with in order to get the best results.
The time impact method assumes that doing several analyses on the schedule updates can evaluate the impact of the delay impacts on projects (Nuhu 18). Given that data and information needed is available, time impact method is the most reliable and acceptable method for most projects. The parties involved are given room and time to scrutinize the causes of the delay and address the issues contributing to the delay (Enshassi and Jubeh 4). This technique is expensive in terms of time involved especially when a large number of delay events are involved.
Window analysis method is focused on the identification and the quantification of the gains and losses on a given critical path schedule (Nuhu 15). It looks at actual performances and compares with the as-planned technique (Enshassi and Jubeh 4). This technique takes into consideration the dynamic feature of the critical path. However, just like the time impact technique, it consumes time (Enshassi and Jubeh 4). It is also expensive to operate when significantly higher numbers of delays are involved.
Other methods also exist but in most cases they are related to these major methods discussed. Several issues arise with the programming and delay analysis. These issues must be given due attention and then resolved to ensure that all the activities in the project run smoothly. There are issues that are related to the “ownership of float in construction programs, concurrency and program approvals.” Other such issues include “mitigation, acceleration, pacing, contractor’s entitlement to early completion and the assessment of disruption damages” (Keane and Calekta 10)....
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