Analysis Of Variance And Linear Correlation On Maximum Absorptive Capacity And Price Of Selected Brands Of Diaper (Statistics Project Sample)
This paper is about the maximum absorption capability of leading brand diapers in the philippines. With the use of tap water as an alternative for urine, each diaper's maximum volume was tested resulting to each brand having different mean in volume. this paper was written as a final requirement for the course biology statistics. we were required to use a statistical method in writing a paper.source..
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AND LINEAR CORRELATION ON MAXIMUM ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY AND PRICE OF SELECTED BRANDS OF DIAPER
1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Baguio
Infants are provided with diapers in order to contain their urine and feces until they are able to help themselves to use the toilet. Millions of diapers are consumed each year resulting to different entrepreneurs investing in developing this commodity. Each brand is advertised in to give maximum comfort and absorption to its user.
However, this study is only about measuring and comparing the maximum absorption capacity of selected diaper brands here in the Philippines – namely Huggies, MamyPoko, EQ, Pampers, and Lampein. With the use of tap water as an alternative for urine, each diaper’s maximum volume was tested resulting to each brand having different mean in volume. Another factor that can be noticed is that the price of each diaper is not directly reflective of its absorption capacity.
Background of the Study
A diaper is a piece of absorbent material wrapped around the bottom of an incontinent person, someone who has no control over his bladder, and people who are unable to reach the toilet when needed. Diapers are commonly used on infants since they lack the capability of controlling their bladders and going to the toilets. Hence, diapers have become one of the, if not the most, basic commodity when taking care of infants.
As of 2012, it was recorded that the Philippines consumes an average of 35 million diapers per year (Rappler, 2012). This was no surprise because according to PSA (Philippine Statistics Authority) there have been more than1.7 million registered births in the Philippines and according to different blogs, 6-8 times a day is the average rate of changing an infant’s diaper.
Since diapers are such of a commodity today, it is inevitable to use its demand in order to gain profit and this is observable with the emergence of the different brands of diapers we have in the Philippines today. Some of these brands are EQ and Pampers, which are mostly advertised through the media platforms that we have. Mostly, their sari-sari store price would range form 8 to 12 Pesos per diaper.
Objective of the Study
Since diapers are such commodities for people taking care of infants, the objective of this study is to measure the absorption capability of each brand in order to determine:
* What diaper brand has the most absorptive capacity?
* Is the price of the diaper directly related to its absorption?
Significance of the Study
As our economy gets tougher, it is best to select the cheapest items that will provide the most benefit and compensation. Particularly with diapers since infants would take a long time for them to learn how use the toilet. In line with this, this study will provide knowledge about the absorption capacity of selected diapers, which will contribute to making choosing of diapers easier. The higher the absorptive capacity results faster diffusion of liquid with the absorptive material and thus making the diaper dryer. With those, right choice of diaper matters not just economically but lessens the risk of infections, rashes per se, among infants.
Scope and Limitations
The study focused only on the absorption capability of five different brands of diaper available in the Philippines namely; Mamypoko, EQ, Pampers, Lampien, and Huggies. All of it was large (L) in terms of size. Each brand was tested in three trials using tap water measured with a graduated cylinder. The use of tap water itself might affect the study in which an alternative imitation of the mixture of urine is more likely to use. Each diaper was given 3 hours to absorb the water. The mark of maximum absorption might be subjective, but in the study, the few droplets of water unabsorbed have been used as an indicator.
Review of Related Literature
Before babies are toilet trained, they wear diapers to avoid having feces and urine as mess in surrounding environment. Most types of diapers on the market are cloth diapers and disposable diapers (Tips on choosing the right diaper, 2012). Diapers are ideal, whatever the material, should be able to maintain a stable pH, and dryness of the skin and prevent rash. To sustain these functions, diapers are generally organized into three layers, namely the inner layer, the core layer containing absorbent material, and an outer layer.
In the disposable diaper, in a generally porous layer to reduce skin friction and coupled with special formula, such as zinc oxide, aloe vera and petroleum to keep skin dry. Absorbent core layer is most often used is cellulose and absorbent gelling material (AGM) or superabsorbent, which is made of sodium polyacrylate. AGM has the advantage can separate urine from feces fluids quickly, hold the liquid in the matrix, and maintain a stable pH. The outer layer of disposable diapers are generally waterproof, but can also be made of a porous material.
The most absorbent material in the diaper is sodium polyacrylate. It can absorb 800 times its own weight in distilled water, 300 times its own weight in tap water, and 30 times its own weight in urine because of salts and impurities. Cotton can only absorb 27 times its own weight.
There are lots of brands of diapers - Huggies and Pampers being the known ones. The Pampers diaper is composed of an average of 3.97 g of sodium polyacrylate, linked on a thin thread, and an average of 0.71 g of cotton. Huggies has an average of 1.88 g of fine powdery sodium polyacrylate and an average of 6.97 g of cotton.
Diaper leakage can be caused by its size, brand, or how it is put on. Infrequent changing of diapers can cause urinary tract infection of dermatitis (diaper rash). These are due to exposure of urine and feces which cause skin moist and aid in the entry of irritants. Urine pH alkaline contributed to the irritation that arises. Fungus Candida albicans can grow and promote rash. It is important to know the maximum urine capacity that a diaper can withhold in order to avoid skin rash on babies.
* Materials and Methodology
Five different brands of diaper, namely, EQ, Huggies, Lampein, Pampers, and MamyPoko pants, obtaining three samples each, are selected through a convenience sampling (non-probability sampling technique) in accord to their availability and abundance in nearby retail stores. To determine the maximum volume (in mL) absorbance capacity of the different brand of diaper, experimental method, a type of data collection, was used. The experiment was properly designed and conducted in controlled conditions.
For the experiment proper, three trials were performed to each brand of diaper using the obtained three samples. The materials that were used are the following: a large basin, funnel, 25-ml graduated cylinder, water (as an alternative to urine), and the 15 diaper subjects.
A large basin was filled with water, and an amount of water is transferred to the graduated cylinder using a funnel. For the preparation of the diaper, the vetro tapes (mini adhesives) are fastened to the frontal tapes, imitating its actual fitting when worn. An amount of water measured by graduated cylinder poured gradually towards the entire pad surface of the diaper until a leakage observed or there is an accumulation of water on the lateral sides of the diaper observed. The excess, unabsorbed water was transferred to the graduated cylinder to know its volume which will be then subtracted from the noted amount of water poured to determine the actual volume the diaper can hold and absorbed. After three trials on one brand, the procedure was then repeated using other brands of diapers.
* Results and Data 1
Table 1. Maximum volume (in mL) absorbed by the selected five brands of diapers (Large size) in three trials.
Table 1 shows the maximum capacities of five (5) brands of diapers for three (3) trials expressed in milliliters (mL).
Table 2. Mean Capacities of Diapers in Milliliters and the Corresponding Price in Peso
Price in Peso (x)
Mean Capacity in mL (y)
Table 2 shows the price of each brand of diapers and the mean capacities (mL) per trial obtained from the experimental method.
Figure 1. Scatter Plot of Price vs. Maximum capacity (mL)
The figure on the right shows the scatter of data which can be used to calculate the correlation coefficient, r.
Table 3. Analysis of Variance for the One-Way Classification
Source of Variation
Sum of Squares
Degrees of freedom
SSC = 265 487.7333
SSE = 1 058.6667
k – 1 = 4
k(n -1) = 10
s21 = 66 371.9333
s22 = 105.86667
f = 66 371.9333105.86667
SST = 266 546.4
nk-1 = 14
Table 3 shows the calculated values to analyze the variance of the data obtained from experimental method done.
1See appendices for the calculations used in the experimental method of data collection...
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