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# Workbook Exercises 16 & 17 Research Assignment Paper (Statistics Project Sample)

Instructions:

Answer exercise 16 and 17 in the workbook. The questions require that you first read the information in chapter 16 and 17 so that you can have a clue on what is required. Your answers should be very brief.

source..Content:

Workbook Exercises 16 & 17

Name:

Grand Canyon University

1

Exercise 16

1 What do degree of freedom (df) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the dfs in the study. Why is it important to know the df for a t-ratio? Using the df formula, calculate the df for this study.

Degree of freedom represents the number independent selection that can be made from a sample data without affecting the order of arrangement. In the analysis of t-ratio, it is important to know the degrees of freedom because the value is used when interpreting the t-test.

df = (number of subjects in sample 1 + number of subjects in sample 2) – 2. For this study, the degree of freedom can be found as follows;

df = Total Sample Size – 2 = 176 – 2 = 174 (dfs).

2 What are the means and standard deviations for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this analysis appropriate analysis technique? What do these results mean?

The mean and standard deviation for age for the buzzy intervention were 8.25 and 1.51 respectively while the mean and standard deviation for age for the control groups were 8.61 and 1.69 respectively. The statistical analysis conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups is t-test. Yes, this analysis is appropriate for determining the statistical difference between treatments. The results mean that the difference between buzzy and control groups is statistically not significant.

3 What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

With a t value of -1.498, a p-Value of 0.136, we can conclude there is no statistical difference between the means of the two groups.

4 What are the assumptions for conducting the independent sample t-test?

The first assumption is that the data in a population have normal distributions. Similarly, we assume that the depended variables were measured at the ratio level and that the groups have equal variances. Finally, we assume that the observations within each group are not related to other observations.

5 Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The groups in this study are dependent. All the t-values are less than the p-Values.

6 What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Face Scale for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rational for your answer.

The mean for the procedural self-reported pain with WBFS is not statistically significant. The null hypothesis was rejected in this study. Since the p-value of 0.000 is less than the alpha of 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the means are statistically significant.

7 Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your response.

A Bonferrroni procedure should be conducted in this study to determine the level of alpha that can be used to compare the statistical results for all the characteristics.

8 What variable has a result of t = -6.135, p = 0.000? What does the result mean?

Parent reported procedural child anxiety had the result of t = -6.135, p = 0.000. The result means that there is a difference between the means of the Buzzy and control groups.

9 In your opinion, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t-values of Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

It is an expected finding that both the t-values of Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. The statistical results should always remain consistent irrespective of the procedure used especially for a normally distribute population.

10 Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

The clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combines cold and vibration is that the procedure reduces pain during IV insertion.

Exercise 17

1 What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent sample t-test in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the Lindseth et al. (2014) study?

The first assumption for conducting a paired or dependent sample t-test is that the distribution of scores is normal or near normal. Similarly, one would assume that the dependent variables are measured at intervals. It is also important to assume that all the repeated measures are obtained from one group of subjects hence the paired scores. Finally, one would assume that the difference between the paired scores are independent. The study by Lindseth et al. (2014) met the third assumption (all the repeated measures are obtained from one group of subjects).

2 In the introduction, Lindseth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

A “2-week washout between diets” mean a detailed observation including pretests, treatments, and posttests. Conducting pretests and posttests is important because it allows subjects to act as their own control during the pretests and the result compared with posttest outcomes based on the level of treatment.

3 What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The paired t-test value for mood (irritability) is 3.4, which is statistically significant given that the p-Value is 0.002. The p-value of 0.002 is less than the alpha level of 0.01 used in the study and this shows that the result is statistically significant.

4 State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study. Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.

There is no difference...

Name:

Grand Canyon University

1

Exercise 16

1 What do degree of freedom (df) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the dfs in the study. Why is it important to know the df for a t-ratio? Using the df formula, calculate the df for this study.

Degree of freedom represents the number independent selection that can be made from a sample data without affecting the order of arrangement. In the analysis of t-ratio, it is important to know the degrees of freedom because the value is used when interpreting the t-test.

df = (number of subjects in sample 1 + number of subjects in sample 2) – 2. For this study, the degree of freedom can be found as follows;

df = Total Sample Size – 2 = 176 – 2 = 174 (dfs).

2 What are the means and standard deviations for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this analysis appropriate analysis technique? What do these results mean?

The mean and standard deviation for age for the buzzy intervention were 8.25 and 1.51 respectively while the mean and standard deviation for age for the control groups were 8.61 and 1.69 respectively. The statistical analysis conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups is t-test. Yes, this analysis is appropriate for determining the statistical difference between treatments. The results mean that the difference between buzzy and control groups is statistically not significant.

3 What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

With a t value of -1.498, a p-Value of 0.136, we can conclude there is no statistical difference between the means of the two groups.

4 What are the assumptions for conducting the independent sample t-test?

The first assumption is that the data in a population have normal distributions. Similarly, we assume that the depended variables were measured at the ratio level and that the groups have equal variances. Finally, we assume that the observations within each group are not related to other observations.

5 Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The groups in this study are dependent. All the t-values are less than the p-Values.

6 What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Face Scale for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rational for your answer.

The mean for the procedural self-reported pain with WBFS is not statistically significant. The null hypothesis was rejected in this study. Since the p-value of 0.000 is less than the alpha of 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the means are statistically significant.

7 Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your response.

A Bonferrroni procedure should be conducted in this study to determine the level of alpha that can be used to compare the statistical results for all the characteristics.

8 What variable has a result of t = -6.135, p = 0.000? What does the result mean?

Parent reported procedural child anxiety had the result of t = -6.135, p = 0.000. The result means that there is a difference between the means of the Buzzy and control groups.

9 In your opinion, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t-values of Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

It is an expected finding that both the t-values of Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. The statistical results should always remain consistent irrespective of the procedure used especially for a normally distribute population.

10 Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

The clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combines cold and vibration is that the procedure reduces pain during IV insertion.

Exercise 17

1 What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent sample t-test in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the Lindseth et al. (2014) study?

The first assumption for conducting a paired or dependent sample t-test is that the distribution of scores is normal or near normal. Similarly, one would assume that the dependent variables are measured at intervals. It is also important to assume that all the repeated measures are obtained from one group of subjects hence the paired scores. Finally, one would assume that the difference between the paired scores are independent. The study by Lindseth et al. (2014) met the third assumption (all the repeated measures are obtained from one group of subjects).

2 In the introduction, Lindseth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

A “2-week washout between diets” mean a detailed observation including pretests, treatments, and posttests. Conducting pretests and posttests is important because it allows subjects to act as their own control during the pretests and the result compared with posttest outcomes based on the level of treatment.

3 What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consumption of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is this result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The paired t-test value for mood (irritability) is 3.4, which is statistically significant given that the p-Value is 0.002. The p-value of 0.002 is less than the alpha level of 0.01 used in the study and this shows that the result is statistically significant.

4 State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study. Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.

There is no difference...

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