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Hartley Earth Dynamics Term Paper: Distinguishing Property (Term Paper Sample)


Discussion on MINERALOGY in Australia with map highlights of the landscape and its natural resources.


Geo 125
Earth Dynamics
Blue Mountains is in West Sydney and it has a mountainous topography. Popular for its mountain range and plain landscape, the location has wide economic advantages. It stands out as an attraction because of its wild environment. It also has geological advantages as a mineral deposit. Historically, the area is also popular for its gold rush and archeological sites. Hartley is a village of interest because of this mineralogy including oil discoveries. Dating back in 1840 the town has been a torbanite mining site providing kerosene shale obtained from fossil fuel. Its location is also strategic because of its proximity to the Sydney basin, and Lachlan Fold Belt. These are popular for sedimentary rocks and old basement rock deposits. This report delves into these economic benefits from different rock types. It also looks at the possibility of using ecofriendly energy and alternative energy sources like the hot dry rock from geothermal power.
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc496879033 \h 4Hartley Earth Dynamics PAGEREF _Toc496879034 \h 4Sedimentary rocks PAGEREF _Toc496879035 \h 5Ingenious rocks PAGEREF _Toc496879036 \h 6Metamorphic rocks PAGEREF _Toc496879037 \h 7Fossil Fuel PAGEREF _Toc496879038 \h 8Outcrop PAGEREF _Toc496879039 \h 9Geothermal Energy PAGEREF _Toc496879040 \h 11Understanding the Geological Maps PAGEREF _Toc496879041 \h 13Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc496879042 \h 15APPENDIX PAGEREF _Toc496879043 \h 16References PAGEREF _Toc496879044 \h 17
According to the National Geographics (2017) the formation of top world mountain ranges is as a result of earth movement activities. Such activties have record breaking formations dating back to millions of years. Erosion, volcanic activities and weathering also cause changes in such regions. In the midst of these activities important rocks come into existence comprising of valuable minerals and natural resources. Hartley is a mountainous region endowed with ingenious, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Rich in mineral deposits from beneath the earth surface, the rocks emanate comprise of frozen lava melts, hardened sediments and hardened rocks CITATION Ald17 \l 1033 (Alden, 2017). Within these surfaces are important mineral deposits, which have economic value. The igneous rocks contain basalt, porphyry, pumice, granite and peridotite among other useful stones. The sedimentary rock is important for sandstone, siltstone, conglomerates, rock salt, and gypsum among others. The area also contains metamorphic rocks for soapstone, slate, argillite, mylonite, gneiss, marble and quartz among others. Based on the energy challenges in Australia, this report also supports the use of alternative sources of energy CITATION Aus17 \l 1033 (Australian Government, 2017). The hot dry rock (HDR) is a sustainable method from geothermal energy. This is a renewable energy source from hot rocks with proven successes in developed countries.
Hartley Earth Dynamics
Natural science identifies the massive benefits of the earth’s benefits in the midst of water deficiency CITATION Gre11 \l 1033 (Gregory, Vidic, & David, 2011). In order to understand these economic benefits, it is important to understand its interior mechanisms. It is possible to draw out the economic viability of a location by grasping its mineral composition. This comes from rock and earth characteristics. The table below shows Hartley’s mineral composition and their properties. From the table most of the region has fossil fuels. Prolifith rocks like the ingenious whose parent rock is the ingenious owe their formation to erosion effects.

Distinguishing property

Mode %

1. Fossil fuels

Flammable, black, organic rock


2. Granitoids ( felsic Plutonic rocks)
PluPlutonic rocks Plutonic rocks

Interconnected Quartz


3. Mafic plutonic

Harder and darker


4. Permian marine sandstone

Thick sandstone


Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1: Hartley’s Mineral composition
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1: Prolific formation of rocks showing the eroded rocks CITATION Per12 \l 1033 (Perkins, 2012)
The evolution of rocks contributes to the development of crucial metals such as copper and zinc. Each location has its natural endowments and Hartley has an opportunity to tap into its geological strengths by considering the earth’s geochemical evolution.
Sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary rocks are permeable and porous rocks comprising of coal, oil and natural gas properties. The natural decomposition process combined with the exposure to pressure and heat from the crust of the earth leads to the sedimentary rocks of varied hardness and shades CITATION Tuc11 \l 1033 (Tucker, 2011). These are geologic organic materials with a flammable chemical property including hydrocarbon properties. The decayed natural material converts to crude oil. White in color, Permian rocks are structures with a salt ridge characterized by dipping layers. The Permian rocks come from the sandstone dunes. This is a combination of marine and glacial terrestrial deposits. The presence of organic material gives it the bleached color. These are common in shallow shelved and sub marine lava flow environments. Common in the deep-water debris, they comprise of rock strata with an accumulation of fossil material CITATION Ros17 \l 1033 (Ross & Ross, 2017). Minerals found in sedimentary rocks include limestone, quartz, pebbles and silica among others. Their formation is by the accumulation of other rocks or sediments.
Ingenious rocks
These come from molten rock and contain carbon properties released with exposure to heat. Their variety includes plutonic rocks like gabbro and granite, which contain numerous mineral compositions. Spotting a coarse texture, they have a rusty color caused by weathering effects. These have been in existence for millions of years and the mineral formation stabilizes across the years CITATION Ald17 \l 1033 (Alden, 2017). It includes magnesium, iron, granite, pegmatite and volcanic rocks.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2: Different types of ingenious rocks CITATION Ald17 \l 1033 (Alden, 2017)
Felsic plutonic rocks are examples of ingenious rocks emanating from magma, and its volcanic eruptions CITATION Rit121 \l 1033 (Rittmann, 2012). This settles on the earth crust and cools at a slower rate forming large crystals. Felsic granutoids are intermediate and porphyritic in texture. The fine grains are light in colour with a coarse ingenious feel. The well-formed porphyritic crystals have a glassy look and an aphanitic texture of a fine rock. These have chemical compositions of pyroxene, plagioclase and quartz. Felsic c rocks emanate from magma, which comes from volcanic eruptions. This settles on the earth crust and cools at a slower rate forming large crystals. Mafic rock also come from volcanic magma but its solidification is at higher temperatures. Its formation produces a darker rock with higher compositions of mafic minerals made of magnesium and iron CITATION Gem13 \l 1033 (Gem, 2013).
Metamorphic rocks
These rocks come from heat and pressure effects from deeper sections of the earth. The metamorphism combines sedimentary and ingenious CITATION Rol14 \l 1033 (Rollinson, 2014). These have different modes of formation including featuring foliation and non-foliation processes. The result is the development of harder rocks with minerals such as gneiss and quartzite. An example is the mafic minerals, which are medium in size and comprise of iron and magnesium minerals. Characterized by a coarse texture of fine grained and glassy look, these low viscosity igneous rocks are rich in apatite, magnetite and ilmenite. Their formation is continuous and varied as shown in the figure below.
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 3: Varied Mafic rocks formation CITATION Yar12 \l 1033 (Yardley, 2012)

Distinguishing property



Isotropic crystal granular

13 %

Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 2: Metamorphic rock and mineral percentage in Hartley
Fossil Fuel
Fossil fuel comprises of a mixture of different elements of coal, crude oil and petroleum. This shows mixed grain sizes of soil particles with different qualities and sizes. Coal has a 74-μm diameter. Its particle is a water slurry with a 250-μm size. Crude oil has a hue pattern and is mostly made of water CITATION Gal12 \l 1033 (Galloway & Hobday, 2012). Natural gas is in form of fission gas bubbles from plant and animal matter while petroleum comes in a viscoelastic texture of oxide precipitates. Therefore, the fossil fuel is a rock microstructure with a crystalline structure of micro grains. Fossil fuels come from millions of years and come about as a combination of decayed matter
Table SEQ Table \* ARABIC 3: Rocky mountainous terrain with a variety of rocks CITATION Ald17 \l 1033 (Alden, 2017)
The hydrocarbon coal, oil and natural gas later develop into trapped fossil comprising of impermeable and sedimentary rocks to become impermeable rocks comprising of coal, oil and natural gas. The natural decomposition process combined with the exposure to pressure and heat from the crust of the earth leads to the sedimentary rocks of varied hardness and shades CITATION Tuc11 \l 1033 (Tucker, 2011). These are geologic organic materials with a flammable chemical property including hydrocarbon properties. The decayed natural material converts to crude oil.
Outcropping caused by weathering affects the topography of a landscape. Hartley in Sydney has a unique view of the rocks characterised by a tertiary outcrop and horizontal contour lines. This is due of the rock formations as cracks, fissures and bedrocks...
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