Soil Erosion in Australia + MCQs (Term Paper Sample)
The 2011 Australian State of the Environment Report identifies three key indicators of the condition of soils in Australia. These indicators are:
- Soil Erosion
Select one of these indicators and discuss the:
- causes ( pressures or stressors) and their effects on soil health
- the current situation ( state)
- responses ( solutions)
You can choose to discuss the selected indictor in a general sense or select a specific example of a pressure which causes the problem ( the changes in soil carbon due to a particular land management practice, soil acidification in cereal cropping regions, urban erosion etc). In either case it is essential that you present current scientific and information in your discussion. In effect the assignment provides you with the opportunity to write your own SOE report on a specific matter relating to degraded soil landscapes.
It is suggested that you refer to the 2011 SOE report section on land for information to begin researching your answer which will help you to establish a framework.
Soil Erosion in Australia
Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees
Civil Engineering Test Assignment
Topic: Fundamentals of Environmental Science- The Soil Resource There are two parts of the test assignment; first: MCQs and second: Essay
Part 1: MCQs
Please provide the correct option with appropriate explanation:
Q1. A rectangular bar of width b and height h is being used as a cantilever. The loading is in a plane parallel to the side b. The section modulus is
If b is width and h is height then section of modulus.
z = I/Y; I = hb^3/12 and y = b/2 then.
z = (hb^3/12)/ (b/2).
Then z = (b^2/6) is answer. Because the load is in a plane to the side b
Q2. The ratio of strengths of solid to hollow shafts, both having outside diameter D and hollow having inside diameter D/2, in torsion, is
The maximum stress due to torsion in solid shaft is 16T/d3.
The maximum stress due to torsion in solid shaft is 16x16T/15d3.
Therefore ratio maximum stress of solid shaft to hollow shaft is simply: 15/16.
T/J = s/R = G0/l.
Q3. For a simply supported beam with a central load, the bending moment is
D. Maximum at the center
In simply supported beam both ends have zero bending moment and it has maximum bending moment at center.
Q4. The force in member U2L2 of the truss shown in below figure, is
B. 10 T Compression
Support reaction = 15 T.
Take a section passing through U1U2, U2L2, L2L3. And Consider right section.
Now within the section, vertical forces are 10 T at U2, Force of U2L2 at U2, 10 T at last end and 15 T from support. Assume force of U2L2 downward.
Now take summation V = 0.
10 + F + 10 -15 = 0.
F = - 5. -ve indicates assumption is wrong, it is acting upwards i.e. towards the joint. So it is compressive.
So, the answer is 10 T compression
SOIL EROSION IN AUSTRALIA
Soil security is a cornerstone of Australian agriculture's current and future production and profitability, according to the Australian National Soil Research, Development and Extension Strategy. Soil erosion dominates soil degradation in Australia in terms of area. Erosion has been significantly reduced as a result of modern agricultural practices. In addition to enhancing production, future developments in agricultural soil management could lead to additional stabilization and a slowing of soil degradation. We believe that while monitoring soil degradation may suggest land degradation, it will not lead to soil security. We propose using a triage system to deal with soil degradation.
Keywords: Agriculture; soil security; erosion; no-till; conservation agriculture; Australia
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………7Causes of Soil Erosion in Australia7Overgrazing…7Deforestation…7Mono-cropping…8Mass movement8Rainfall and Flooding…8Effects of Soil Erosion…9Agriculture9Waterways10Infrastructure10Current State11Solutions11References12
Soil erosion describes the process by which the uppermost fertile soil is overexcited by erosion forces such as wind and water. Australia is one of the countries that may struggle to deal with the threat of soil erosion. The country is dealing with the devastating effects of soil erosion as well as the challenges posed by practically every aspect of the Australian financial system. The causes of dirt, what the authorities are doing to mitigate the problem, and potential solutions are all discussed in this file.
Causes of Soil Erosion in Australia
Overgrazing is the practice of raising animals on a limited amount of land in order to surpass the wear capacity of the land. It has resulted in a reduction in ground cover, resulting in the ground becoming naked as a result of many animals stepping on it, allowing the uppermost fertile soil to become loose and exposed to abrasion effects (Conacher, 2013). Overgrazing also has a negative impact on biodiversity and contributes to desertification by allowing alien species to spread.
It's a far cry from the practice of felling trees and other vegetation for other purposes, such as farming, settlement and urbanization. As a result of saline water draining from places affected by downslope, the salinity of the soil will rise (Morgan, 2009). Due to land scarcity, it also adds to the public perception of top productive soil being naked, which, due to land scarcity, contributes to an increased rate of soil erosion. Deforestation, for example, is expected to harm around 6% of rural areas in Western Australia.
Mono-cropping is the practice of growing only one type of crop over an extended period of time. Traditional farming and permaculture farming, both of which support mono cropping, are practiced in Australia. As a result, the fertile soil is depleted, yields are reduced, and the plant cover at the surface of the land is reduced, exposing it to the ravages of erosion, as well as water and wind (Bailey, 2016).
This is a method of moving materials downslope using gravity. It affects locations with steep slopes where rocks are broken and generates slope instability, which is exacerbated by heavy rainfall that triggers it. Mass movement causes plant life to be cleared and the land to be mined, exposing it to soil erosion (Wicherek, 2012).
Rainfall and flooding
Rainfall is the only erosive agent. It integrates the most fertile soil and exposes the least fertile soil to the surface of agricultural land, which cannot sustain any form of crop growing in one of the zones (John Boardman, 2013). Floods are caused by heavy rainfall, which causes rivers to flow on the ground and transport dirt to their destination, which might be rivers or other bodies of water, leaving non-fertile soil on the land's surface.
Figure: 1 Couse of soil erosion
IMPACTS OF SOIL EROSION
Soil erosion has a wide range of consequences on agriculture, rivers, and infrastructure, including the following:
Soil erosion removes valuable topsoil, which is the most efficient element of the soil. As a result, crop yields will be reduced and manufacturing prices will rise. It also affects the soil's capacity to retain water and vitamins, as well as the subsoil's undesirable chemical and physical qualities, the lack of freshly planted plants, and soil or silt deposition in low-lying places.
Eroded soil may contain a few particles of vitamins, fertiliser, and herbicides that are hazardous to aquatic life. As a result, it may cause aqua
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