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Common Infection Genital Herpes: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (Term Paper Sample)


A description of genital herpes type 2

Genital herpes: herpes simplex virus type 2 Student’s name Course Institutional affiliation September 26 2018 Genital herpes: herpes simplex virus type 2 Genital herpes is a common infection that is classified as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) because transmission usually occurs through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse. Viruses of two types cause genital herpes; herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The two viruses have some differences as well as some similarities. For instance, both viruses are equally contagious, are treated with the same medication and present similar symptoms. However, the viruses are different in one or more ways ("Herpes simplex virus," 2017). This paper is therefore aimed at discussing genital herpes that is caused by HSV-2, its presentation, modes of transmission, diagnosis, its associated complications as well as its management. HSV-2 is usually transmitted through sexual intercourse, which is later accompanied by genital herpes HSV-2 infection either in the genital area or the anal area. The infection is incurable and once an individual is infected, the disease lasts for as long as they live. Genital herpes HSV-2 is an issue of global concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2012 there were more than 400 million people living with the condition. The statistics further indicated that Africa was one of the most affected region, with more than 30% of the total cases being from Africa. It was also estimated that in America the prevalence was high, with more than 12% of the total cases being from the Americans. The study by WHO additionally found out that a high number of new cases of infection with genital herpes caused by HSV-2 was among the adolescents although it was also established that its prevalence increases with age. The study also established that genital herpes HSV-2 is highly prevalent in women than in men where there were approximately 267 million women living with the infection. About 150 million men on the other hand, were found to live with the infection ("Herpes simplex virus," 2017). The condition usually presents no symptoms at all and an individual can live with it unrecognized for years. However, the most significant symptom of HSV-2 infection is occurrence of one or more blisters or ulcers in the genital area or the anal area. Some individuals mistake these blisters for other skin conditions, which is the reason why most people remain undiagnosed. Once the blisters break, they leave painful sores in the infected region, which normally heals within seven or more days. Other symptoms of a newly occurred infection include body aches, swollen lymph nodes and fever. The initial diagnosis of HSV-2 is usually severe, but the subsequent outbreaks are usually less severe and lasts for a short period of time. though the infection is incurable, the frequency of the outbreaks decreases with time. prior to the occurrence of genital ulcers, most people experience tingling sensations in the legs, hips and buttocks (Bernstein et al., 2017). HSV-2 infection is usually transmitted from one person to another during sexual intercourse. This happens when an individual gets into contact with the genital surfaces, skin sores or fluids of an infected individual. However, the virus can also be transmitted from a generate or anal area that appears to be normal and therefore the infection is usually transmitted even in the absence of symptoms. A rare mode of transmission is from an infected mother to an infant during child delivery or even before birth. In such cases, the child gets infected with a deadly herpes infection known as neonatal herpes (Johnston et al., 2017). Various complications have been associated with HSV-2, some of which include psychosocial impacts, neonatal herpes and HIV. Studies show that an HSV-2 infection increases the risk of acquiring HIV by three times. In addition, the likelihood of spreading HI to others increases with the presence of the infection. Moreover, one of the most common infection affecting people with HIV is HSV-2 infection (Bernstein et al., 2017). Immunocompromised individuals such as those with HIV are usually at a higher risk and their symptoms are usually more severe with reoccurrence frequencies being much higher. As mentioned above, neonatal herpes occurs during birth of a child and it can lead to lifelong neurological disability or even loss of life. The reoccurrence of symptoms which are painful may lead to stigma and psychological distress both of which affects the quality of an individual’s life. Other serious but rare complications associated with HSV-2 infection are esophagitis, pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis and retinal necrosis (Johnston et al., 2017). HSV-2 infection is usually diagnosed through physical examinations and laboratory tests which include Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, viral culture and blood tests. Blood tests usually detect past herpes infection by detecting herpes virus antibodies in the blood. Viral cultures on the other hand establish the presence of the virus in the genital sores. PCR test is used to determine the type of HSV infection that an individual has. Since...
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