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Theories and Foundation of Child Development (Term Paper Sample)


Describe the setting of each program with respect to the type of program they provide and identify the teaching approach taken by each facility.
Include the description of each classroom, pupil-teacher ratios, transition activities, etc.
Describe and discuss activities, materials, resources and instructional experiences that promote the cognitive development of the children served at the childcare facility you have chosen


Theories and Foundation of Child Development
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Child development is the process of growth that occurs between birth and puberty as part of the human cycle. This procedure is highly consistent and follows a similar pattern for each child, except that it is unique in its own way. However, the ultimate objective of this process is for each kid to go from complete dependence to self-sufficiency. The growth of a child differs from one person to the next due to various predisposing factors, such as genetics (Berk, 2013). Other variables, such as nurture, can influence how quickly or slowly a kid develops. According to Berk (2013), emotional, biological, and psychological factors all play a role in child development.
Numerous stages further describe child development. According to Berk (2013), the first stage is the newborns, who are usually between the ages of zero and four weeks. The next stage is infants, who are between the ages of four weeks and one year. Berk (2013) names the third stage as the toddler's stage, consisting of toddlers between one and three years. The third stage is the preschooler's stage consisting of children between the ages of four and six years. The fourth stage is the school-aged children, who are between the ages of six eleven years. The final stage is the adolescent stage, which consists of children between the ages of twelve and nineteen years (Berk, 2013). Nevertheless, child development is a widely discussed topic, thus evaluating a focused observation and field experience preparation will be essential in understanding some of the crucial aspects of child development.
The monitoring and care of a toddler or a group of children aged two to eighteen years is known as child care. Child care is a broad issue that encompasses a wide range of individuals, organizations, locations, activities, and social and cultural norms. Early childhood care is an essential but frequently ignored aspect of a child's growth. Kids under the age of three develop through studying and engaging with their surroundings, which includes the emotional climate as well as the physical area of a child care facility (Berk, 2013). Safe settings for rest, secure locations for fair and energetic play (both inside and outside), and spaces to engage one-on-one with specialized caregivers are all necessary for infants and toddlers to thrive. They require toys and activities tailored to their particular interests and skills rather than one-size-fits-all group play in their surroundings.
Parents create experiences and activities geared at growing and extending each child's thinking, skills, interests, and talents while planning a program for children. While all services are expected to prepare for children, Pilarz (2018) argues that how this is accomplished varies per provider. From the observations I made from the videos, I noticed several childcare programs that were featured in the videos. These programs included home-based care, center-based care, group and residential care, before and after school, and preschool programs. Typically, these programs present a variety of child care options accessible to a parent. If one is aware of the different settings available, they will be better equipped to observe and pick the child care provider and learning environment that best meets the requirements of their kid and family. 
Home-based care programs, which are small childcare businesses operated inside someone's home, were run in residential spaces. Moreover, preschool programs are part of all child care found in a residential and non-residential setting. On the other hand, before and after school programs provided care for school-aged children before or after school hours, or during school breaks, organizations. Child care facilities, family child care homes, and community centers are all places where programs were evident. Similarly, two providers run group and residential programs, each caring for 8 to 16 children in a residential setting. Because of the greater group size, most providers made specific arrangements in their homes to offer a secure and healthy learning environment. On the other hand, center-based programs were provided in more significant settings where children are cared for in a group for all or part of the day away from their homes. Preschools, parent cooperatives, businesses, non-profit, and church-based care are all examples of center-based care.
Regarding the observations made, the majority of the institutions prioritized outstanding child development and care. Pilarz (2018) points out that seven out of ten American toddlers under the age of six are generally looked after outside the house while their guardians are at work. Since many of them devote the majority of their waking hours at a child development center, it must be structured to offer a comfortable, nurturing, and engaging settings that are necessary for their healthy development. To that aim, all child development centers featured in the videos were furnished with well-lit active and passive activity rooms that could accommodate a wide range of play and programmed learning activities, as well as fulfill the requirements of adult staff and parents and encourage the formation of staff-child relationships. In addition, each of the centers shown in the clips meets the standards for high-quality child development programs and conditions, including hygiene, security, natural light, and classroom size.
There were child-friendly classrooms with lots of natural light in all areas, age-appropriate furniture, windows at children's eye level, and a variety of ceiling heights, low enough for closeness but high enough to avoid a repetitive spatial experience. In the classrooms, there were additional storage facilities for tricycles and other toys. Additionally, majority of the facilities had a playroom and multi-purpose play space where kids could run, balance, swing, slide, play ball, and climb, swing, during adverse weather.
Each caregiver's amount of time and attention to each child is determined by group size and adult-child ratios. Individualized care and one-on-one time for interactions and routines are essential for infants. They can play more independently as they become older and even handle small group activities. From the observations that were made, the kid-to-caregiver ratios varied depending on the child's age, with one caregiver caring for three babies ranging in age from 6 weeks to 18 months. Similarly, one caregiver was responsible for five toddlers ranging in age from 18 to 36 months. On the other hand, a family child care provider may only care for two children under the age of two. One certified child care provider looked after roughly eight preschoolers in a p

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