Project Quality Management Process (Term Paper Sample)
This was a class activity assignment that comprised a list of questions to be answered and the overall task submitted as a report.
Inside the report, all the answers to assignment questions are presented as findings. The questions covered all the key areas of project quality management such as quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.
Assessment Task: 1
Assessment Title: Class Activities
Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Table of Contents PAGEREF _Toc75985937 \h 2Table of Figures PAGEREF _Toc75985938 \h 51.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc75985939 \h 61.1Purpose PAGEREF _Toc75985940 \h 71.2Background PAGEREF _Toc75985941 \h 71.3Research Method PAGEREF _Toc75985942 \h 81.4Scope PAGEREF _Toc75985943 \h 82.Findings PAGEREF _Toc75985944 \h 92.1Quality requirements of stakeholders PAGEREF _Toc75985945 \h 92.1.1Quantifiable quality criteria PAGEREF _Toc75985946 \h 102.1.2Sourcing of information on quality policy and procedures PAGEREF _Toc75985947 \h 102.1.3Establishing quality requirements PAGEREF _Toc75985950 \h 112.2Quality assurance PAGEREF _Toc75985951 \h 122.2.1Tools and methodologies for project processes PAGEREF _Toc75985953 \h 132.2.2Quality-control records and audit documentation PAGEREF _Toc75985954 \h 152.2.3Quality compliance PAGEREF _Toc75985955 \h 162.2.4Reporting shortfalls in quality outcomes PAGEREF _Toc75985962 \h 172.3Review of project outcomes PAGEREF _Toc75985963 \h 182.3.1Stakeholder satisfaction analysis PAGEREF _Toc75985964 \h 182.3.2Evaluation of stakeholders from a previous project PAGEREF _Toc75985965 \h 192.3.3Reporting quality management issues PAGEREF _Toc75985966 \h 203.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc75985967 \h 204.References PAGEREF _Toc75985968 \h 21
Table of Figures
TOC \h \z \c "Figure" Figure 1: Project Quality Management Process PAGEREF _Toc75986152 \h 4
Figure 2: Example of Cost-and-effect Diagram PAGEREF _Toc75986153 \h 12
Figure 3: A Control Chart Example PAGEREF _Toc75986154 \h 13
Figure 4: Flowchart Example PAGEREF _Toc75986155 \h 13
The one goal that every project must accomplish is to achieve the outlined objectives, or meet the expectations of stakeholders (Rever 2007; Ray 2018). It is the main way of confirming a project’s quality. To achieve the project objectives, therefore, a quality management system has to be established. Rever (2007) discussed that the quality management process of a project is categorized into three sub-classes: Quality planning; quality assurance; and quality control. Figure 1, below, summarises the components of each of the stages.
Source: Ray (2018)
Figure SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1: Project Quality Management Process
Each of these sub-categories consists of several inputs, procedures, and tools. When planning the quality management, project managers must capture more aspects than the cost, time, and scope. In other words, the project goals should be aligned with the firm’s strategic objectives. Linking the project to key business metrics may also attract sponsors, grow their interest, and make them active participants in the process (Rever 2007). On the other hand, quality assurance comprises of systematic actions for inspecting the project procedures to find out its capability to attain the quality requirements. Ray (2018) explained that a process checklist or project audit or both may be applied in this regard. Now, the main purpose of quality control in project quality management is to introduce peer reviewers and tests that will determine compliance with rules and adherence to quality requirements (Ray 2018). Such quality checks allow for adjustment of the deliverables so that the set standards are achieved. This report presents detailed information on these main stages (quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control) of projects quality management.
Competition and changes in customer preferences are the main reason why organisations must embrace the developments in quality management (Weckenmann, Akkasoglu & Werner 2015). Over time, the traditional push strategy that informed mass production has grown into a pull strategy where customer demands are highly valued and market orientation is prioritised. The quality requirements as well as time and budget allocated to a project are also dictated by “how” things are done. This is opposed to the traditional perspective which focused on “what” organisations did (Wechenmann et al. 2015). To help organisations adopt the current project quality management systems, this report performs an in-depth analysis of prevailing quality management methods, techniques, and tools that can support firms to achieve quality improvement.
According to Hamid, Isa, Chew, and Altun (2019, p.160) “quality” was first used in 1900s by the father of scientific management (Frederick Taylor) and the interest in this subject matter grew in 1922 after the publication of the book The Control of Quality in Manufacturing by GS Radford. The book indicated that quality was the responsibility of management and that it played a vital role in inspection. Later in 1930s to 1940s, statistics become a part of the quality management areas. The new perspective promoted problem-solution in the management process (Hamid et al. 2019). The understanding of quality management saw significant transformation in 1950s, especially due to the Japanese Industrial Revolution. In fact, term “total quality management” (TQM) was first used by Naval Air Systems Command in reference to the Japanese management method for attaining quality improvement (Nowicki & Sikora 2012). The term (TQM) describes behavioural attributes, evaluation of qualitative and quantitative data, economic theories, and process inspections (Wechenmann et al. 2015). In 1961, an overall approach to quality was advocated for by Feigenbaum. He argued that quality has to be applied from the product design phase to the end product, which must satisfy the demands of the customers.
This meant that every process involved in production of goods and services must apply quality management. Hamid et al. (2019) explained that the official launch of quality standards, accreditation, and systems happened in 1979 following the introduction of British Standard (BS) 5750 (which became BS EN ISO 9001:2000 in 1987). The International Standards for Organisations (ISO) and series of ISO 9000, in 1987, presented the approaches to system implementation for particular quality requirements to be fulfilled. Other relevant improvements followed in 1990s and by the end of the year 20000, significant focus on Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Conservation became widespread. Organisations must, thus, take actions that protect the social and environmental wellbeing. What followed, and is visible today, is the Industry 4.0 which comprises a number of digital technologies for capturing and analysing quality management data. The technologies also encourage innovation, generation of new ideas, and connectivity between individuals and machines. Today, Nowicki and Sikora (2012) argued that quality management must consider the firm’s environment, disorders within the business, and requirements of all the interested parties must be integrated in quality management.
3 Research Method
As a secondary research, this study relies on secondary data. Such data is obtained from previous research studies on quality management process, class notes, and from personal experience (past and present) participating in various projects at the workplace. The study consists of a list of questions to be answered based on different activities. Information gathered from these secondary sources and personal experience are, therefore, applied to respond to the questions.
The study has three main sections. The first section focuses on and covers the quality requirements of project stakeholders, the quantifiable quality criteria applied on project deliverables, sources of information on project policies and procedures, and the process of establishing the quality requirements for project planning and execution processes. The second part deals with implementation of quality assurance, selection and adoption of quality tools and methodologies, practices in maintenance of quality control records and audit documentation, selection and maintenance of compliance records, and the process of reporting project shortfalls. The last part of the study concentrates on the need for continuous project outcome reviews, stakeholder analysis, and reporting the quality issues to the relevant stakeholders.
This section presents the results of the study on project quality management.
5 Quality requirements of stakeholders
* Quality requirements of stakeholders must be determined in a project
Quality requirements are conditions or capabilities that must be met to achieve successful completion of a project. Requirements may be indicated in a code or a written contract (Zwikael & Goberson 2004). A project management document is often used to capture the quality requirements, and the documented details play a crucial role during quality planning. This increases the chances of a project’s success.
Project stakeholders: Example
I previously took part in an Energy Conservation Project at a hotel. The purpose of the project was to minimise use of energy services through efficient application of available energy sources, recognition of alternative energy forms, and avoiding energy wastage.
The two key stakeholders involved in the project were the Direct Manager and the Project Team. The Direct Manager explained the project’s expectations, tools for measuring performance, timelines, and project goals. He also worked closely with the involved stakeholders and encouraged communication to promote transparency and make motoring and evaluation of the project easy. On the other hand, Project Team partic...
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