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5 pages/≈1375 words
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MLA
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Term Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Communicable Disease: Microbe, Diseases And Causes (Term Paper Sample)

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a term paper on the human-microbe that is of concern to the human healthcare industry. The client chose Haemophilus influenza.

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Haemophilus influenzae
Introduction
Human beings are affected by some microorganisms that cause diseases or fermentation. Haemophilus influenzae is an example of the microbes that is a major of concern to human health care. It is a disease-causing organism that belongs to the Pasteurellaceae family discovered in 1933. Not to be confused with the flu disease referred to as influenza, this is a bacterium that is the cause of many infections. It is commonly abbreviated as H. Influenzae and that is how it will be referred to for the rest of this document. The bacteria has many strains and H. Influenzae type b is the most common. A detailed analysis is, therefore, biased on this strain than other strains of the microbe. H. Influenzae is an opportunistic microbe that is a major concern to human health. For this reason, the health care industry should put effort and resources to deal with it.
Discussion
Microbe and Diseases it Causes
There are two major categories of H. Influenzae: the encapsulated and the unencapsulated strains. Basing on distinct capsular antigens, the encapsulated strains are classified into six general types. They are a, b, c, d, e, and f. on the other hand, unencapsulated strains can be classified by multilocus sequence typing because they lack capsular serotypes (Fleischmann, et al. 496). Most strains of H. Influenzae are opportunistic in that they simply reside in the host’s body without causing any ailments and only begin affecting the host when triggered by other factors such as low or reduced immunity. Naturally, this microbe tends to affect human beings only. H. Influenzae type b, commonly referred to as Hib, is the most common type of this bacteria that affects a majority of victims.
H. Influenzae is an airborne illness that is transmitted from one person to another through direct contact or inhaling respiratory droplets when the infected sneeze or a cough. Those who spread it do not necessarily exhibit any symptom if it is simply residing in their throat or nose. It mostly resides in the nose and throat of a human host without causing any harm. Its incubation period is uncertain but the first symptoms can show up even after a few days depending on the state of the health of the host. If an illness arises in the body of the host, the bacteria then moves to other body parts causing infection there.
Hib is known to cause a lot of serious illnesses, especially in children. However, it also affects adults who have faced chronic underlying medical conditions. The serious infections caused by Hib include meningitis which is an infection that affects the lining of the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis has the highest prevalence as it accounts for 50% of Hib infections. Before the vaccination era, meningitis accounted for up to 65% of the Hib’s infections ("Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib) - NHS Choices”).
Other infections are: septicemia which is a form of blood poisoning, pneumonia that affects the respiratory system especially the lungs, osteomyelitis which is an infection of the bones, cellulitis which is an infection of the skin and the tissues underlying it, septic arthritis that is an infection of the joints, epiglottitis that affects the opening of the trachea and pericarditis that affects the lining of the heart ("Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib) - NHS Choices”).
Challenges it poses to the health sector
Discovered back in 1988, H. Influenzae vaccine can protect individuals from the risk of infection. Before the discovery of the Hib vaccine, the illness affected the health sector badly as the bacteria was the leading cause of meningitis. Despite the existence of the vaccine for more than 2 decades, statistics indicate that an estimated 3 million Hib bacteria related illnesses are reported annually ("Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib)"). The report further indicates that approximately 386000 deaths are caused by the bacteria every year mainly through pneumonia and meningitis attacks. In developing countries affected by the virus, more deaths are caused by pneumonia than meningitis.
Another challenge is the complexity of detection. The bacteria can only be diagnosed through a lab test. H. Influenzae can be identified through direct examination of samples by performing a gram stain. It even gets worse as some medical practitioners have ignorance and little knowledge on Hib. Due to this, the health sector has a hard time because the infected may continue spreading the bacteria to a large population without them knowing. The lack of information about Hip bacteria by the affected continues to affect the health sector as the diagnosis is made late and the illness leaves approximately 15 to 35% of the victims with permanent disabilities.
Vaccination programs, treatment, and research in this bacteria requires a lot of funding. The health sector has been spending a lot of money in dealing with the disease through vaccination since early 1990s. Developing countries are highly affected as they face the challenge of shortage of money. By 2004, while close to 98% of the population in developed countries had been vaccinated, only 42% of the population in developing countries had received the vaccine ("Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib)").
Efforts Put In Place to Deal with H. Influenzae
The health sector has been doing its best to deal with Hib-related illnesses. Most countries have rolled out vaccination programs for their citizens. In 1998, WHO began a global awareness program on the Hib vaccine. It developed the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, GIVS, initiative to strengthen the immunization system of the poorest countries ("Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib)"). Further recommendations to mix the Hib vaccine with other vaccines such as the tuberculosis vaccine has been done in most countries. Therefore, the vaccine is given as a single shot that protects the vaccinated ag...
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