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1 page/≈275 words
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MLA
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Technology
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Term Paper
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

The Possibility Of Contamination In The Ground Water And Surface Water (Term Paper Sample)

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THE SAMPLE WAS ABOUT the possibility of contamination in the ground water and surface water

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Content:

Groundwater Contaminants
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Table of Contents
Introduction
Conceptual Model
Scenario Description
Physical and Geographical simplification
Groundwater Characteristics
Transport Characteristics of Chemicals of Concern (COCs)
Ground Water Spreadsheet Model
Spreadsheet Results
Sensitivity Analysis
Summary
Conclusion
Introduction
The problem under investigation in this project is to study the possibility of contamination in the ground water and surface water. The two major agents of contamination identified in the Transport trichloroethylene (TCE) and benzene. The sites have been marked as Toxic waste sites TWS 1 and TWS 2. There are variable chances that the contaminants can reach the moving water depending on the gradient of the flow and the height of the ground water in relation to the water table. The input data are expected to change during the experimentation, and this will alter the output parameters because the models are not altered. The methods of water dispersion that have theoretically been identified are diffusion, retardation of dissolution, Active transport and dispersion. Apart from these methods, the ground water naturally and inherently has contaminants (Newton 29). The intersection between the Toxic Site 2 has more concentration of the two contaminants than site 2. The spreadsheet results will assist in the determination of the concentration profile in relation to the source distance. The assumption is that ground water will transfer the impurities from their sources directly into the flowing river. Secondly, there is an assumption that the ground water is flowing with low gradients ranging from 0.03 to 0.05 (Newton 29). As the contaminant reaches or approaches the river, there is need to compute the measure of mass loading.

Figure 1: Scaled Drawing
Conceptual Model
The model presented in this project represents industrial process groundwater is polluted when the used chemicals and the flowing water undergoes the hydrological cycle. The models have been constructed in the system to process the input data marked in red and construct output in various forms. In the process, some of the output changes because the input data is varied. It is possible for the inputter to test the conceptual model behavior by combining different forms of the input. This depicts the various ways through which the ground water can gather impurities and in different proportions. The wastes and destructive chemicals such as benzene and trichloroethylene in this process dissolved in the flowing water through spillage and leakage wrong way of treating the contents of the water.
The model represents the actual relationship between the waste dumping related to the pollution-based activities. It shows one major agent of contamination of the underground water (Laws 51). The model represents certain enterprises without access to proper waste disposal. Operates without septic systems and depends on the method of disposal in shallow underground pits. In fact, the model is an exact representation of septic tank except for the contents of impurities and wastes being specific chemicals (trichloroethylene and benzene). Even so, whichever the form of contaminants that the model represents in this project leads to underground water contamination and intoxication of the water for human consumption (Hogan 59). The air spaces in the soil have dry pores, which cause the wastes to move penetrate directly into the underground zones. Just like Septic tank model, the systems have no capacity to mitigate the risk of industrial pollutions (Goel 49). The model has the geological cycle, which explains the inherent risks of such practices as dumping of the used chemicals. The design of these models combines different processes of interaction between wastewater and the natural ground water. The concentration of these chemicals is one of the parameters used as the inputs because of the waste chemicals that they produce that in most cases have high content of toxins.
Scenario Description
The research presents a scenario in which every source of ground water is at a risk of contamination or is already contaminated, specifically by the two impurities. The water supply and management authorities do not know whether the plumes of benzene and trichloroethylene are very much near the flowing water in the river and the water inside the underground well. They therefore do not know whether there is any danger or not facing the sources of ground water. In essence, with the two impurities, the risk of the rivers and the wells being contaminated is very high. The chemicals are able to experience the mixture with the ground water and form toxins. It is therefore very vital to select one of the sites presented in this project as of greater priority to test the impacts and the probabilities of pollution. The measure will determine the funding need for treating the polluted area. It also involves maintaining the cleanliness of the ground water in the areas that face impurities. The situation further indicates that the river has higher chances of being polluted of the inclination of the adjacent slopes towards it. They become of higher risk considering that the surface water in the river constantly interacts with groundwater and the flowing water in the river. This kind of interaction is eminent, except where there is control of the interaction between surface water and the ground water. The wells collect water that moves in flowing in the open surface of infiltration through capillary action in the soil beneath. It thus gathers potential impurities from the area demarcated as being the contaminated region.
Physical and Geographical Simplification
The interactions that occur as the groundwater mixes with the water flowing on the surface appear simple yet it entails very many complicated processes. As a result, the ground water suffers from serious pollution or contamination. Naturally, surface water comes from many sources but the main source of surface water is rainwater. The ground water suffers the biggest consequences of pollution. However, in the same way, surface area also gets into contact with these chemicals even before interacting with the groundwater. The surface water contamination and the groundwater pollution take place at different positions and in different concentrations. As the model in this project shows, the ground water reaches a level of concentration known as saturation, beyond which the toxic wastes cannot dissolve in the water.
Groundwater is at risk of contamination by agents that cannot directly influence the conditions of the water at the surface. As the surface water spill on the ground, all its solvents penetrate the soil until they reach the water table. They then release chemical toxins and waste contaminants in the ground. It is worth noting that the surface is not located close to the water ate the ground surface. It does not develop pollution based on the source point but has the capacity to contaminate the aquifer that runs under it. The aquifer is known as the toxin plume. The transfer of the toxic plume from one point to another is called the plume front. Its analysis passes through the hydrological movement model or through the groundwater system. As we analyze the groundwater pollution, this project emphasizes on the soil properties and the prevailing geological structures of the pollution site. It also focuses on the properties of the pollutants and hydrological nature of the impurities.
Groundwater Characteristics
The characteristics of the ground water and its response to impurities depend on the depth of the water table, the level of the underground water, the gradient of the adjacent slope. and the concentration of the surface wa...
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