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Thesis Proposal
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Virtual Planning, Rapid Prototyping and Bone Scaffold Design in Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery (Thesis Proposal Sample)


In this paper, I was to develop a proposal on the above mentioned topic. The instructions were to strictly follow the format for proposal writing.

Running Head: Virtual Planning, Rapid Prototyping and Bone Scaffold Design in Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Virtual Planning, Rapid Prototyping and Bone Scaffold Design in Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
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Virtual Planning, Rapid Prototyping and Bone Scaffold Design in Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery
Summary and Aim
Medical models are 3D representation of specific anatomical regions resulting from medical imaging.
The first aim of this thesis is to develop aworkflow for the generation of scaffold that represents to boney defect derived from three –dimensional medical imaging techniques such as MRI, CT scan, and Virtual Computer based Planning.
Currently, there is technique available for comprehensive computer based planning and techniques of Rapid prototype printer, but there is not any available standard procedure to make 3D planning and to generate scaffold in Rapid prototype process. In this thesis, we will take available planning and available 3D printer and apply for generation scaffold models.
Survey will apply for different materials that are available and to investigate which of the materials are suitable for use with Rapid prototyping process.
RP and CAD/CAM procedures permit the production of scaffolds for cell delivery that are custom-made to fit into specified bone defects. Craniomaxillofacial bone has a subtle 3D structure and is irregular in shape, and individualized renovate of bone defects is very significant. CAM, CAD, RP and laser scanning technologies have thus been used in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Whereas studies have explored the appropriateness of different materials in the construction of CAD/CAM scaffolds, histological studies concentrating on BMSC seeding in scaffolds have shown that PGA/PLA are among the best materials obtainable for the regeneration of new cartilage and bone. Nevertheless, external volume sculpting of the scaffold and creating approaches for its RP using PGA/PLA are major challenges.
CAD/CAM has been used in reconstruction of the mandible. The final target of mandibular reconstruction is speech restoration, facial form, and masticatory function. Contemporary reconstruction techniques combine the use of micro vascular flaps and mandible reconstruction plate fixation.

Scaffold will be constructed according to the basis of the anatomy. The second aim of this study will be to check interaction compatibility of these materials with human tissues. Optimized geometrical scaffold will do pre-clinic test in tissue culture to evaluate the interaction compatibility with human tissue, and to determine the use of accuracy of materials in clinical applications in future.
In this PhD project we will develop and evaluate the workflow, taking example of the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ).
The scaffolds used should fit into the anatomical defect and ought to have adequate mechanical integrity in addition to a controllable degradation rate. The synthetic biodegradable
polymers poly (glycolic acid) (PGA), poly (lactic acid) (PLA), and poly (lactic-co-glycolic
acid) (PLGA) have attracted a lot of attention in tissue engineering for the reasons that they have excellent biocompatibility, uniform quality, ease of fabrication into desired shapes, and controllable degradation timescales in comparison to natural macromolecules
Bone tissue engineering cells must be accessible in huge amounts and must be able to express the bone and cartilage phenotypes. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) can differentiate into adipogenic, fibroblastic, and osteogenic cells. The technique for collecting these cells is well established, and BMSC lines can be willingly spread for extended periods with no loss of their potency.
The inclusion criteria will comprise of biomechanics, forensic medicine, finite element analysis, general dentistry, tissue engineering, prosthodontics, animal studies, and virtual imaging. The inclusion criteria will consist of three dimensional models, stereo lithography, medical rapid prototyping, craniofacial, 3D printing, selective laser sintering, cranioplasty, polyjet, fused deposition modeling, 3D models based on implantology guides, and maxillofacial.
Material and methods
Computer tomography dataset of the mandible. The process usually called reverse engineering in the world of engineering will begin by obtaining computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging 2D image data as digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) files
Three to five Materials. Three to five different scaffold materials will be used for this study. The study consists of stages to get scaffold that will be tested and analyzed. One specimen of each defect mandibular condyle shall be used for the lab work and made for each defected sample, with RP; guided construction for the development of fitted bone replacement created using PGA/PLA.
Computer based planning software will use “Mimics” ”biobuild”. Processing of the DICOM data will be done using MIMICS, Biobuild, computer based planning software to generate a 3D model of the anatomy showing the defect
Rapid prototype printer (3D printer). The 3D model file will then be imported into CAD design software, to produce the design of the final implant. The implant will then be produced by the additive manufacturing process.
These stages will require considerable understanding of 3D medical image processing, medical imaging, software creation, engineering procedures, and computer-assisted designs.
One specimen dataset (computer tomography data) of the mandible.
By Mimics software remove one side of TMJ to show as a defect.
Mirror technique use to re-construction the defect and replace virtually in our computer planning software.
With this dataset file (STL) install to the Rapid prototype machine to manufacture scaffold 3-5 models made by different materials (scaffold preparation).
Compare manufactured accuracy for the five generated models and record (investigation of manufacturing accuracy 3D printing ).
Exposed the materials to tissue culture cells to test how the materials interact with human tissue (Bone and scaffold relation).
Very important note:
Before the start of any of the experiments, it will be necessary for all the selected materials to be sterilized. This is to ensure that all the results of the experiment are accurate and free of any contamination. This factor will also be necessary for the determination of materials that will be used.
The use of RP to generate models for medical use is a great and sensitive subject, with many well‐publicized examples. Possibly, the most well‐known examples are in cases of conjoined twins (Christensen, 2004). These are among the most complex and difficult surgical procedures that surgeons have ever had the guts to conduct. These procedures engage big teams of specialists who use models in plentiful stages of the preparation. In fact, it has been affirmed that many operations will not take place if it were not for the accessibility of the medical RP models.
In the Cranio-Maxillofacial surgical profession, certain posttraumatic asymmetry, depressive deformities, and congenital defect have been found in the craniofacial skeleton. Individuals with any of these defects, the hypoplasty or injury zone, as well as the actual shape of the implant, which will replace the bone defect, must be identified prior to the operation (surgical intervention). Suitable approximation of the amount of bone that is necessary for the surgery must be determined before the implantation operation.
An integration of both medical and digital technology, as well as tissue engineering, has indicated increased potential for providing solutions to these defects.
RP and CAD/CAM methods facilitate the creation of cell delivery based on scaffolds, which are tailored to fit into particular bone defects (Klein & Glatser, 2006).
Cranio-maxillofacial bone is rough with a delicate 3D structure, making it necessary to ensure individual fixing of the defects characteristic to this bone (Menderes, Bayteken & Topcu et al., 2004)
CAM, CAD, and RP technologies along with laser scanning have initially been integrated for successful Cranio-Maxillofacial surgery, (Kau, CH, Richmond S, Zhurov AL, et al 2005; Dean, Min & bond, 2003,). The utilized scaffolds must be appropriate for the physical tissue, and there must be sufficient mechanical veracity, and controllable rates of degradation (Hollister, 2006).
It is important that the cells utilized for the bone tissue reconstruction are continually available, in large quantities, and expresses the bone phenotypes and cartilage. There are various Bone Marrow Stem cells; (BMSCs). These are Osteogenic, and Adipogenic cells (Peltola, Melchels, Grijpma DW, 2008).
The technique utilized for harvesting these cells is well known, and the BMCS ranks may be readily increased for elongated time without the loss of potency (Durham, McComb, & Levy, 2003). Numerous BMSCs cannot be cultured, which increases the possibility of fabrication, as well as transplantable systems, which are comprised of necessary scaffolds, with flourishing BMSC in development (Hutmacher, Sittinger & Risbud, 2004).
Kakarala et al (2006) brings to light the use of stereo lithographic models in the evaluation of new surgical procedures.  The authors explained that uneven properties and inadequate availability are pitfalls in using cadaveric bones for implant stability tests.  Artificial bones avoid these, but tailoring them to explicit studies may be hard.  Stereo lithography (SLA) procedures create tailor-made bones with pragmatic geometries, but their lower Young's modulus may have an effect on the outcomes.
Ozan et al (2009) stated th...
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