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Effect of incivility, emotional exhaustion, and psychological resilience on teacher’s performance (Thesis Sample)
Effect of incivility, emotioThis study will be of an incentive value to academics, practitioners and the society. The study contributes in existing body of knowledge by examining the effect of incivility and family-workplace conflict on performance of teachers at the university level. Moreover, this study probed the mediation of emotional exhaustion and the moderation of psychological hardiness. The research will likewise add to the present review being carried out on workplace incivility, family-workplace conflict, emotional exhaustion, psychological hardiness, and job performance of teachers. nal exhaustion, and psychological resilience on teacher’s performance source..
Effect of incivility, emotional exhaustion, and psychological resilience on teacher’s performance Submitted by: Registration No: APPROVAL SHEET This study titled “Effect of incivility, emotional exhaustion, and psychological resilience on teacher’s performance” is accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Psychology. Viva Voce Committee Supervisor Dr. Signature ______________ External Examiner/Evaluator Signature ________________ Internal Examiner/Evaluator Signature_________________ HOD, Psychology Signature_________________ Vice Chancellor Prof. Dr. Signature_________________ Endorsement Letter Honorable Professors, my thesis under the title of “Effect of incivility, emotional exhaustion, and psychological resilience on teacher’s performance” has been viewed and verified by the researcher committee and my respectable teachers. Kindly approve my thesis and allow me for my thesis defense and assign me a fix date for my defense of the thesis. (Dr. ______________) Supervisor DEDICATED TO This thesis is dedicated to my parents, brothers and sister.Acknowledgement In the writing of this thesis, first of all, thanks to Almighty Allah, who gave me courage, strength and facilitate me to accomplish all my research work. I am exceptionally grateful to my supervisor and I want to express my gratitude to my supervisor Dr. _______________ for their invaluable guidance and steadfast support throughout the thesis time. I am exceedingly thankful to Mr. Adnan Hussain, who helped me in SPSS and providing materials, necessary for my thesis. I am thankful to my beloved parents; I could not have achieved anything without their endless faith in my abilities and their constant moral support. Thank you for being there for me always. I also want to thank my friends for his help and patience. Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Abstract11 Introduction12Litrature Review14Theoratical Background15Method 16Research Questions16Significance of the study17Hypotheses .17Research Design 17Operational Definitions 17 Tools 17References20 List of tables S.NO Contents Page 1 Correlation among major variables 15 Abstract Present study aims to elaborate the impacts of incivility, emotional exhaustion and psychological resilience on the performance of teachers. To acquire the target aims, the researcher hypothesized that “workplace incivility and emotional exhaustion are negatively correlated with teacher’s performance” it was also hypothesized that “Psychological resilience is positively correlated with teacher’s performance and negatively correlated with workplace incivility” similarly, “emotional exhaustion is positively correlated with workplace incivility”. In contrast, it was also hypothesized that “Psychological resilience is negatively correlated with Emotional exhaustion”. To get these, the researcher recruited 301 individuals through convenient sampling technique, from different school, colleges and universities of Islamabad; their age range was 25 years to 60 years. To collect data, four scales were used, of job performance, emotional exhaustion, academic resilience and workplace incivility. The result indicates that job performance and academic resilience is highly correlated (p=0.01**), similarly the correlation between academic resilience and emotional exhaustion high correlated (p=0.01**), between resilience and work place inactivity, between emotional exhaustion and work place inactivity significantly and positive correlated to each other (p=0.01**). The t-test results also indicates the gender differences among all variables and significant level is (p=0.01**). On the basis of these results, the researcher concluded that job performance is directly correlated with academic resilience, similarly, academic resilience also highly correlated with emotional exhaustion and work place incivility, emotional exhaustion and work place incivility also highly correlated with each other. The researcher also concludes that there is also gender difference among all variables. INTRODUCTION This discussion on incivility and associated outcomes is inconclusive and alive in literature. It is important to create awareness regarding harmful aspects of this issue with probable mechanism of its effective management for betterment of the individuals and organizations. Developed countries are proactive in this context but much work is needed in developing and third world countries. The issues of incivility and task conflicts almost exist everywhere, though with different intensity and outcomes. Education sector is also not free from such issues and is, indeed, more vulnerable to the issues of incivility, bullying, overloads and task conflicts. This sector is also imperative for its significant contributions in socio-economic development of the nations (Ozturkss, 2001). Seeing its significance, governments all over the world are focusing this sector to facilitate quality education for its citizens (Ali & Tahir, 2009). It, therefore, seems important and relevant to examine the issues and outcomes of incivility, role conflicts and other intermediating factors in this particular sector. Repeated occurrence and longer existence of behavioral issues in organizations and societies can negatively affect the performance of employees at work. In addition to the issues of uncivil behavior, problems may also arise when individuals fail to secure and maintain a balance at workplace and home life. This may be due to interference of family members in work time or of work responsibilities during leisure time with family. Such role conflicts may enhance psychological distress of employees and negatively affect their job performance. Perception of individuals regarding misbehavior or mistreatment at home or at work and excessive family interferences during office hours can cause sufferers to exhaust emotionally which then negatively affect their performance at workplace. Mentally strong individuals may, however, hold the capacity of absorbing such negative issues. This aspect of individuals’ personality is termed as psychological hardiness which can play a buffering and resisting role against negative events and shocks. Considering these direct and intermediating factors, research framework of the study is designed and presented. Incivility The word incivility means rude or unsocial speech or behavior. Incivility refers to the discourteous, rude and low intensity deviant behavior, violating the standards of reciprocal respect at work place (Anderson and Pearson, 1903, Lim and Tai, 2014). Further, researches indicate that workers, who suffer uncivil behavior, tend to feed greater job stress and dissatisfaction having lower creative abilities, mental distraction and psychological distress. Ideally polite and courteous interposal treatments, based on sense of mutual respect and cooperation, are expected in communities. In practice, these positive attitudes and behaviors are, however, largely missing. The lacking of such positive elements triggers the emergence of incivility, with negative repercussions (Peters, 2015). Factors Affecting incivility Incivility involves discourteous or rude act or mistreatment with others. The people, within a community, are generally expected to treat each other politely with courtesy and respect, while the absence of such elements indicates the prevalence of incivility (Peters, 2015). Incivility is different from violence and its examples include abusive comments, insulting the target, spreading wrong stories, social isolation, etc. Experiences of insulting and uncivil behavior can negatively affect the moral, physical and mental health of victims (Lim, Cortina, & Magley, 2008; Peters, 2015) Family incivility Family incivility indicates the deviant behaviors with low intensity and ambiguous intentions to harm others. It can violate norms of mutual respect in the family. It is reflected in attitude, behavior and dealing of family members in day-to-day matters. It can disrupt normal functioning of individual employees and groups, surges dysfunctional behavior, ends up with lower performance and lesser productivity level in the organizations. Family incivility as compared to family aggression or abuse is less chronic shape of interpersonal behavior (Bai, Lin, & Wang, 2016). The victims may be excluded or disregarded from social activities and their opinions are not much considered in family matters. Such an attitude can be panic for targets, inducing them to disconnect from family and making them emotionally drained and psychologically strained. Higher level of family incivility can produce and intensify negative emotions among the victims and can be a source of producing aggression at workplace (Naeem, Weng, Ali, & Hameed, 2020; Sidrah Al Hassan, Fatima, & Saeed, 2019). Individuals perceiving incivility from family can feel stress and emotional exhaustion at job, find it difficult to perform tasks effectively and show lesser organizational citizenship behavior at job (De Clercq, Inam Ul Haq, Azeem, & Raja, 2018). Family and work are two vital and crucial aspects of an individual’s life. Individual can perform better in the presence of balance between work and home life (Farrell, 2012; Soomro, Breitenecker, & Shah, 2018). Workplace Incivility Similarly, extra time requirement at job and workplace aggression instigated by supervisors, colleagues, or customers can be a source of producing and intensifying work-family conflict (Chen, 2018; Dettmers, 2017). The conflicting tasks and roles which the individuals are supposed to perform in family and at workplace can substantially influence the satisfaction, performance and outcomes at job (Erdamar & Demirel, 2014; Hsu, 2011). Such conflicts can also enhance the psychological distress and emotional exhaustio...
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