Design and Fabrication of Dry Cell Hydrogen Generator (Thesis Sample)
THIS WAS A FINAL YEAR PROJECT OF A MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDENT DOING HIS MASTERS. HIS PROJECT WAS TO DESIGN AND FABRICATE A DRY CELL HYDROGEN GENERATOR. A THESIS HAD TO BE WRITTEN ON THIS EXPERIMENT. THE THESIS CONTAINED THE BRIEF BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC, REVIEW OF LITERATURE, METHODOLOGY THAT WAS FOLLOWED WHILE PERFORMING THE EXPERIMENT, THE RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF THE EXPERIMENT, AND THE END THE CONCLUSION.source..
Design and fabrication of dry cell hydrogen generator
This report has been submitted for assessment towards a Master of Science/Management degree in the School of Engineering, London South Bank University.
This report is written in the author’s own words and all sources have been properly cited.
Automobile manufacturers have spent a part of the last several years conducting research on innovative technologies in an effort to simultaneously improve the engine performance as well as the efficiency of the engine. A new technology that reduces the amount of gasoline that an engine uses and the pollution it produces is something that both consumers and the government are interested in obtaining as the price of fuel continues to climb. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Catalytic Rectifiers, Forced Induction, Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Kits, Auxiliary Systems, Bio-Fuels, and Other Alternatives are Just Some of the Possible Solutions to this Issue. In the course of our project, we will make an effort to find a solution to this problem by conceptualizing and creating an HHO Generator, that is an auxiliary system. This generator operates on the basis of the electrolysis principle, which separates the deionized water into its component gases, hydrogen and oxygen. These gases are then introduced into the combustion chamber through the air intake. These gases are utilized to improve the performance of the engine, reduce the amount of fuel that is consumed, and lower the number of emissions produced.
This report is based on the experimental study of design and fabrication of dry cell hydrogen generator. The report is divided into different sections. The introduction sections contain the background of the project which includes all the related concepts that are needed to understand this project. The main aims and objectives of the study as well as the deliverables of the research are also highlighted. The technical context and background section is also added which provides the review of literature and critical analysis of different other studies. The next section will be the technical approach section which will contain the materials as well as the methods which were used to carry out this research. The next section will contain the results of the experimentation and the discussion on those results using different graphs and charts for better understanding of the results. At the end, a section will conclude the whole research and recommendations for future work will also be provided.
Depletion of fossil fuel reserves occurs as a result of the continued consumption of fossil fuels. Depletion of fossil fuels, which account for up to 80% of human needs, is a direct effect of the human dependence on fossil fuels (Zou, 2016). Due to its environmental benefits, hydrogen was chosen as a renewable energy source. Saving fossil fuels and reducing fossil fuel dependency can be achieved by using this alternative energy. The current picture predicts an ever-increasing reliance on conventional fuel supplies. There has been an increase in fresh oil discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico because of the political uncertainty and the change in prices caused by the oil powers' struggle in the region. Hydrogen is the most plentiful element in the universe, and its unique qualities make it a promising candidate to take the place of the fossil fuels now in use. As long as the other elements are there, hydrogen is always accessible in its embryonic state (Gad, 2020). It is therefore necessary to extract hydrocarbons for industrial and commercial purposes. In this situation, electrolysis is the optimum method for producing hydrogen because it is both commercially viable and very efficient in terms of energy utilization.
Fuel depletion and rising oil prices have prompted engine makers around the world to look for new ways to improve energy efficiency and reduce hazardous emissions from combustion engines used in the generators, which are currently encouraged. Using an additive as a supplement to fuel can improve the overall performance of engines of the generators by reducing fuel consumption and hazardous gas emissions. In an effort to improve the efficiency of engines, researchers have studied the effects of various additives on fuel (Elmaihy, 2017).
It is common knowledge that hydrogen is a fuel that does not produce pollution, is renewable, and can be recycled. The lack of carbon is the primary distinction between fuels derived from hydrocarbons and fuels derived from hydrogen. In addition, hydrogen has a faster flame speed, a faster combustion velocity, and broader flammability restrictions than other hydrocarbon fuels do. This is because hydrogen has a higher boiling point. This assists the engine in completing the burning process and enables it to operate on very lean mixes, which leads to a decrease in the amount of unburnt fuels and pollutants produced by the emission. The role of hydrogen as a secondary fuel is the primary topic of this research investigation. It is essential that this point be emphasized: HHO gas is not utilized as a substitute for diesel or gasoline since it requires a greater amount of battery capacity to generate a suitable amount of HHO in order for the engines to operate without any hiccups (Musmar, 2011). Because hydrogen is used as an additive in already existing vehicular fuels, the additional load that it places on the engine is negligible. The electrical energy required to create hydrogen is provided by the generator of the vehicle. In order to improve the burning rate of the fuel-air mixture, hydrogen can be added to gasoline and utilized as a fuel additive in automobiles.
Hydrogen is more flammable, has a higher flame speed, and burns at a faster rate than diesel, allowing generators’ engines to function on extremely lean mixes. Toxic gas emissions are not a concern when hydrogen is added to hydrocarbon-based fuels, unlike with other additions, which are not renewable and clean-burning. In addition, hydrogen can be generated from a wide range of sources, including fossil fuels, biomass, water, and various industrial waste chemicals, as well as from waste water. A low-burning-rate fuel can be improved by adding hydrogen to the mixture, thanks to hydrogen's particular combustion characteristics (Hosseini, 2016).
Gasoline, on the other hand, is far less flammable than H2O2 gas. In comparison to gasoline explosions, the HHO explosion is three times faster. Auto ignition of hydrogen fuel occurs at 570oC at atmospheric pressure. It's quite permeable. Fuels like gasoline & gas oil can't compete with this level of air dispersion. H2O2 gas can burn at atmospheric pressure and temperature when it contains between 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume. Because of its low density, oxy-hydrogen poses a storage challenge. For every mole of H2 burnt, 241.38 KJ of energy (LHV) is released (AJAY, 2019).
The use of hydrogen as an additional fuel for internal combustion engines is a topic that has attracted the attention of a great number of researchers, and the findings that have come out of their investigations are highly encouraging (Yilmaz, 2010). Wet cells and dry cells are the two primary categories that distinguish between the two types of HHO generators that are used in actual practice. The most significant distinction between an HHO wet cell and a dry cell is that, in a wet cell, the entire unit is submerged in water, whereas in a dry cell, the plates are kept apart from one another by rubber seals. Because the plates and electrical connections in a dry cell do not get wet from an electrolytic solution, this type of cell is referred to as a dry cell. HHO gas, which is a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, is the gas that is produced as a byproduct of the reaction. The manufacture of HHO gas as a supplementary fuel for IC engines is being done by some of the researchers with the help of a wet cell while the work of the other researchers is being done with a dry cell. For this research, the researchers have chosen dry cell hydrogen generator. The reason for the selection of dry cell has been described below.
Aims and objectives:
The core aim of this study is to conduct a thorough investigation into the design and construction of an HHO generator.
The main objectives around which this research has been based are described below:
* To aid in the development of efficient strategies for HHO generation by providing an effective study
* To create a hydrogen generator that can produce hydrogen for use in vehicles together with other fuel sources.
The key deliverable of this project is to perform the feasibility study of the designing and fabrication of the HHO generator
With the use of block diagrams, this project will demonstrate the complete working of HHO generator
This project will highlight the best materials which could be used for the designing of HHO generator
Technical background and context:
Water in the form of an electrolyte is what makes up the HHO gas. Oxy-hydrogen, or brown gas, is another name for it. Two electrodes are connected to the electrical power source and placed in a water-electrolyte mixture to make electrolyte. In addition to its high specific energy per unit weight and its constant availability as a component of water, oxyhydrogen appears to be an intriguing alternative fuel due to its good fuel properties and eco-friendly, fast burning and greater flame propagation rates. This fuel is composed of oxygen and hydrogen in the same proportions as water, which is why it's c...
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