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26 pages/≈7150 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
English (U.S.)
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The Unfulfilled Promise of Biotech Biomedical Sciences Article (Article Sample)


A review article on the pros and cons of healthcarel biotecnology.


Humans have been using biotechnology to produce food and medicine since the prehistoric times. Karl Ereky XE "Ereky, Karl" , a Hungarian engineer, suggested in 1919 the very term “biotechnology”. In 1953 James D. Watson XE "Watson, James D." and Francis Crick XE "Crick, Francis" published a paper in Nature describing the double helix (1953) XE "Double helix" , eventually receiving the Nobel prize XE "Nobel prize" in Physiology in 1962 ( And in 1976 Robert A. Swanson XE "Swanson, Robert A." and Herbert W. Boyer XE "Boyer, Herbert W." founded Genentech XE "Genentech" , eventually succeeding in launching the first biosynthetic insulin in 1982 XE "Insulin" , in collaboration with Eli Lilly.
Biotechnology definitions
The United Nations XE "United Nations" ’ ( Convention on Biological Diversity (2009) defines biotechnology as “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”. Similarly, the U.S.-based Biotechnology Industry Association XE "Biotechnology Industry Association" (BIO; defines it as “a collection of technologies that capitalize on the attributes of cells, such as their manufacturing capabilities, and put biological molecules, such as DNA XE "DNA" and proteins, to work for us” (2008). Some of these “exotic” biotechnologies have been categorized by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development XE "Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development" (OECD; in Table 1.1 below (2005). Most of these terms will be further elaborated throughout this book.

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