The Effect of Energy Conditioning on Food Preferences and Choice (Article Sample)
This study investigated the development of conditioned preferences for foods varying in energy content
in human adults in a laboratory setting. In a within-subjects design, 44 participants consumed high and
low energy yoghurt drinks (255 kcal and 57 kcal per 200 ml serving, respectively) first thing in the
morning following 8 h of fasting, every day for two weeks, with 5 exposures to each yoghurt drink on
alternate days. The high and low energy yoghurt drinks were paired with two coloured labels (blue or
pink), with the pairings fully counter-balanced. Every day of the third (test) week, participants were
given a free choice of either consuming the pink or the blue labelled yoghurt drink. Participants chose the
high energy drink significantly more often over the low energy drink, suggesting a conditioned
preference for a delayed (energy) reward. These findings provide further evidence for energy based
learning in human adults. This study also provides a new approach to the conditioning paradigm (cueing
energy via a coloured label instead of flavour) and includes a new and important measure in this research
area (preference instead of liking).
SUMMARY REVIEW OF THE EFFECT OF ENERGY CONDITIONING ON FOOD PREFERENCES AND CHOICE
Table of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc11066968 \h 3MAIN FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc11066969 \h 4REAL LIFE IMPLICATION PAGEREF _Toc11066970 \h 4HOW TO IMPROVE THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc11066971 \h 4REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc11066972 \h 5
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
It has been reported that despite the raising health concerns, healthy eating has not been achieved. There has been a noted discrepancy between actual food consumption and healthy diet recommendation (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p.45). Most research has focused on liking leaving out human preferences which could be a better predictor of acceptance (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p.46). Therefore, the current study used preferences to assess the effect of conditioned likening on food choices made by people. The specific objective was to assess the effect of energy levels on choices that result due to repeated consumption using yoghurt drink (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p. 46). Therefore, the study using state of high energy requirement, assessed whether there was high need of yoghurts with more energy levels as compared to the ones with low energy levels. The study was hence centred around yogurt tastes preferences based on flavour (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p.48).
Under the hypothesis of existence of a significant difference in preference for high and low energy drink, the results using a frequency chart revelled that choices for the high energy drink was higher than that of low energy drink (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p. 47). In addition, choice for the high energy drink was statistically higher at 5% level of significance showing that it was consumed 3 or more times in 5 days. In the third week a free choice yogurt was gives to assess variations in the day to day yogurt intake. The results revealed non-existence of a significant variability at 5% level of significance. The results also showed that there was a significant difference in preference for high energy yogurt and low energy yogurt. In fact, the high energy yogurt was more preferred at 5% level of significance (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p. 47). Liking rating was higher for high energy yogurt. However, there was no significant difference in preference due to labelling. In addition, sweetness was not statistically different in the two yogurts. But the high energy yogurt was creamily than the low energy one at 5% level of significance. A higher percent of the respondents correctly identified the high energy drink (61.4%). However, 49% of them expressed a feeling on their answers and were hence not completely sure of their response (Zandstra & El-Deredy, 2011, p. 48).
REAL LIFE IMPLICATION
The current study has implications in reality. For instance, results that in a high energy state, a high energy drink is more preferred, producers and manufactures of drinks and food will use the information for market segmentation. Areas will little access to food and thus the likelihood of hunger is quite high, they will make more supply of the high energy foods. Industries like construction areas
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